Sunday 26 May 2019

Three Million Page Views !! Thank you Readers !

My Textile Notes has crossed three million page views. It goes to show how beneficial this blog has been to the viewers. I will strive to make it as relevant and informative to the viewers in the future as well. Thanks...

Sunday 12 May 2019

What causes Pilling in the Fabrics

Pilling is characterized by little balls of fibers attached on the fabric surface. These are entangled in nature and do not look good on the garment. These are caused by the fibers which got loose during washing and wearing. Due to rubbing action these take the form of a ball.

Pilling is always known in wool specially in garments with soft twisted yarns like Angora. However, with the emergence of synthetic fibers the tendency is aggravated.

What happens is that because the strength of the fibers which "anchor" the pills is low in the natural fibres, pills get formed and removed. But in case of synthetic fibers, which have more strength. the pills remain on the garment and accumulate and become worse.

Why pills get formed. It is due to migration of fibers from the yarn on to the surface of the fabric. So any treatment that reduces this migration tendency will reduce the pilling tendency. Thus increasing the twist in the yarn reduces the pilling tendency as it binds the fibers onto yarn.

The following are factors affecting Pilling

Fiber Factors

1. Fiber Nature: As explained natural fibers are less susceptible to pilling than synthetic

2. Fiber Fineness: Finer fibers are more susceptible to pilling as there is more propensity to bending. For example Angora is more susceptible to pilling than normal wool

3. Fiber Friction: More crimp in the fiber, less is the crimp as the migration tendency of the fibers is reduced.

4. Fiber Length: Shorter fibers are more susceptible to pilling as the migration of fibers is increased.

5. Fiber Strength: As explained earlier, strong fibers increase pilling tendency as there the pills find it hard to dislodge from the garment surface.

Yarn Factors 

1. Yarn Count: Coarser the count, more fibers are there in the cross section which leads to higher pilling tendency.

2. Yarn Twist: As explained earlier, more yarn twist leads to less crimp as it binds the fibers more and reduces its yarn tendency.

3. Yarn Finishing: Unsinged yarns have more tendency to pill.

4. Incompatible Blends: If the blend contains components that are incompatible with respect to fiber length and other parameters, tendency to pill increases.

Fabric Parameters

Closer fabric structures lead to less pilling.

If the fabric is subjected to long processes in finishing and processing there is more friction and hence more pilling is formed.

Use of anti-pilling finishes can reduce the tendency of pilling. 

Apart from technological factors, a few of the important factors for pilling are:

1. The person wearing the garment, if that person is particularly hard on garments, pilling tendency is more.
2. There are some susceptible parts of garments such as collars, cuffs, pocket edges which are more susceptible to pill, as there is more rubbing/chafing of the parts.

3. Garments which are frequently washed are more susceptible to pilling.

Testing of Pilling

A very nice introduction to pilling testing is dealt in this NPTEL lecture. 

1 2- Principles of Textile Testing- J. E. Booth

Buy my books at
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Total Pageviews