Wednesday, 17 September 2014

Notes on Indian Embroidery-1

1. Indian Embroidery is as old as gold. There are some great examples of embroideries found in the remnants of Indus Valley Civilization. 

2. Floral motifs in the embroidery were introduced by Mugals and persians. Brefore that thre were geometrical designs. There is a marked similarity in the embroidery found in the embrodiery depicted on frescos of Ajanta and Phulkari. 

3. Phulkari can be classified basis regions. Some examples are embroideries from Kashmir and Chamba Rumal of Himachal Pradesh from the Northern regions. From Eastern region, Kantha and Satgaon quilts from Bengal and applique work from Orissa are notable examples. From Western region, Kutch produces exquisite embroideries, Punjab Phulkaries and Rajasthan produces gota and applique work. From Ganges Valley, Bihar produces Kashida and Katwa work as well as Rumals depicting Mithila. Uttar Pradesh produces Zardozi, Phulpatti and Chikankari. From South India, Karnataka produces Kasuti and Andhra produces Banjara embroidery. 

4. Indian embroidery can be broadly classified as court embroidery- patronized by the royal court, Trade embroidery, Temple embroidery and Folk embroidery. Zardosi, chikankari are some of the examples of it. Examples of trade embroidery are mochi bharat, kashmir embroidery. chikankari, Satgaon quilts, chinai work. Examples of folk embroidery include that from Mithila, Kutch. Temple embroideries involve that done on Pichhwai, chamba rumals and Orissa.

5. Broadly Indian embroidery can be divided into silk embroidery, quilting, counted thread work, white work-phulpatti and chikankari, mirror work, gold and silver embroidery, applique and patch work and gold and silver ribbon work ( Badla).

Monday, 8 September 2014

My New Book- Fabric Structure Simplified on

Fabric Structure Simplified
A Step by Step Approach

A Book By

Priyank Goyal

This book takes the reader through intricacies of understanding fabric structure from a very beginner level. It covers all basic weaves such as plain, twill,satin and their derivatives.  

Download Here

Product Details

  • File Size: 3859 KB
  • Print Length: 196 pages
  • Simultaneous Device Usage: Unlimited
  • Publisher: Priyank Goyal; 1 edition (September 6, 2014)
  • Sold by: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.
  • Language: English
  • Text-to-Speech: Enabled 
  • X-Ray:
  • Lending: Not Enabled
  • Download Here

Most of the books on this subject are written in a manner which the beginners particularly from a non textile background found difficult to cope with. 

This book is written keeping the language of the subject matter simple and easy to understand. 

Friday, 5 September 2014

What is the Difference between Carbonized Polyester Printing and Brasso Printing on Polyester

Both these techniques are widely used in Saris and dress material in India

Image Courtesy:

Carbonized Polyester Printing

In the carbonization process the cellulosic component of the polyester/ cellulosic blend is dissolved by treating the fabric with 70% sulfuric acid along with small quantities of sulphamic- acid and urea, with the result one gets 100% polyester fabric with very soft handle. It is advisable to use polyester rich blends to avoid the problem of slippage. To produce the carbonized polyester prints initially the cloth is printed with the disperse dyes.
Disperse dye - x parts
Ammonium sulphate (or citric acid) - 3-5 parts
Sodium chlorate - 1 -2 parts
Thickening (guar gum) 600-700 parts
Water - y parts
Total - 1000 parts

Print, dry and fix by steaming at 130C for 30-45 min. The fabric is then be washed, reduction cleared
and carbonized. The carbonization process can be carried out either by a batch process in a jigger or by a pad-batch method. In the jigger the fabrics are treated for 30-40 min ( 2-4ends) at room temperature. The fabric is then washed and neutralized. A mild bleaching treatment may be given to improve the whiteness of the prints.

Brasso or Cut-out Style

 This style involves localised dissolution of the cellulosic component at printed portion by printing the polyester /cellulosic fabric with acid liberating salts. The fabric is initially printed with:

Aluminium Sulphate - 200 parts
Water. - 100-200 parts
Citric acid - 20-30 parts
Wetting Agent(acid stable) - 10-20 parts
Glycerine - 50-70 parts
British gum (1: 1) - x parts
Total - 1000 parts
Print, dry, bake at 130-145'C for 3 to 5 min. 

The goods are then thoroughly washed  a winch to remove the
degraded cellulosic component.  a winch to remove the degraded cellulosic component. Bleaching may be carried out to get better whiteness. 

Cellulase enzyme treatment can also be done to get this effect, as it hydrolizes the cotton componetn. In the case of cotton rich blends, the traces of cellulosic part remain on material and therefore more severe enzymatic treatments are required. The acidic cellulase enzyme is the best suitable for this application. The same principle is used in brasso style of printing in which cellulosic portion is removed from the polyester-cotton blend material after printing. the advantages of carbonization using cellulase enzymes are: 1. The process is non-corrosive and non hazardous 2. Less wear and trea of machines 3. Eco friendly process 4. No separate curing is required as in conventional brasso printing. v. No adverse effect on the print color and feel of the fabric.


Sunday, 31 August 2014

Why Polyester POY have such a craze in Indian Ethnic Wear

Polyester POY

POY / PFY is largely used in shirtings and suitings, sarees, ladies’ dress material, and knitwear. It is preferred in men’s wear due to its higher crease recovery, wrinkle resistance, better drape, longer retention of prints and colours, and better abrasion as compared with competing fibres, such as PSF, VSF and NFY. 

The use of POY / PFY in sarees has increased due to the development of crimping, twisting, texturising and wet processing technologies. These technologies offer more flexibility in designs and patterns. Moreover, these technologies help increase the air permeability of these yarns. As a result, the fabric would be able to absorb more moisture. 

It is also used in applications, such as soft luggage and specialty fabrics. POY is sold by producers to the texturising units. The texturising units process it and sell it to weavers (largely in the powerloom sector). Unlike PSF, PFY is not blended with cotton by blended yarn producers, since it is in the filament form and not in the fiber form. However, in the powerloom stage, PFY can be woven with other yarns. 

POY / PFY is a substitute for cotton and other synthetic yarns. POY / PFY has a number of advantages over its substitutes. 

These advantages include:

 Better Properties: POY / PFY is more durable, does not fade on exposure to sunlight or soap, has better abrasion resistance, drape and crease recovery properties, and is wrinkle resistant

 Price Competitiveness: Since the 1990s, POY prices have declined significantly, largely due to the decline in the landed costs, on account of decline in the import duty


Normal Partially Oriented Yarn (POY) needs to be necessarily texturised before being used for making fabric whereas FDY, as the name of the yarn itself indicates, is drawn fully during the process of spinning itself and therefore does away with the requirement of texturising and can use directly for making fabric.

FDY is generally used for better quality fabric. As the process of texturising is avoided, FDY yields higher contribution as compared to the normal POY.

The following are the properties incorporated during texturing of FDY:
Low Intermingle Yarn
These  are comprised of high modules mono filaments. The range is highly popular because the entanglement spacings in these yarns are relatively low and the tenacity remains relatively unaffected.

Non Internmingle Yarn

Non Intermingle Yarn is known for their minimal entanglement spacings and hence it facilitates easy use.

High Intermingle Yarn

These yarns are commonly used for making fabrics. The range can be availed in different Deniers depending upon the requirements of the clients.

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