Tuesday, 1 May 2018

What is the difference of Modal from Viscose



Modal is type of Rayon, however it is different from Viscose in many aspects.

Viscose fiber, is one of the most widely used man-made fiber as it is versatile , affordable and its properties resemble to cotton .However, ordinary viscose staple fibers have low initial modulus i.e. they can be easily stretched under low load specially in wet condition . It has poor elastic recovery and is very sensitive to the effect of moisture.

Modal fiber, introduced in the year 1930 seems to be the right answer to these disadvantages. Modal as defined by the International Bureau for Standardization of Manmade Fibers (BISFA) is a distinct viscose rayon fibre genre, which has a higher wet modulus and satisfies a minimum value of tenacity in the wet stage at 5% elongation.

Modal has number of advantages over viscose fiber and mercerised Cotton.

1. Modal posses lower elongation and higher wet modulus as it has higher rate of polymerization than viscose.

2. Its exceptional similarity to cotton and silk in terms of texture (luster, sheen and gloss) results in a surface smoother than mercerized cotton .

3. It can be blended with almost all textile fibres, viz. cotton, wool, silk and other synthetic fibers.

4. Modal displays high dimensional stability, both for low shrinkage and low unrecoverable extension.

5. It is more hygroscopic in nature than cotton i.e. absorbs 50% more water than cotton, has more tensile strength with excellent wear resistance and is less likely to form pills as a result of friction.

6. Modal is also resistant to wear and strong while maintaining a soft, silky feel. Modal fibres have found a wide variety of uses in clothing, outwear and household furnishings.

7. Textiles made from modal fibres do not fibrillate, or pill, like cotton does and are resistant to shrinkage and fading .

8. It causes reduced growth of bacteria when compared to cotton, if both stored for the same period of time and it age like cotton.

Today, Modal is widely used in clothing as a replacement for cotton or mercerized cotton and viscose. (Source)

In addition to this, here is a guide to the various brand names of fibers to their generic names.

Want to go in more depth, here is an article.

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What is the difference between Khandua and Sambalpuri Sarees



This post can easily be labeled as how to Identify a Khandua Saree from Sambalpuri Saree. 

I am writing this post from a buyer's perspective. In general, Khandua sarees cost less than corresponding Sambalpuri sarees. 

The main difference between Khandua and Sambalpuri  sarees is that the sambalpuri sarees have more elaborate and dense Ikat patterns, thereby making them more costly. Also Sambalpuri Silk Sarees Use Mulberrry x Mulberry yarns ( 3 ply x 3 ply) and thus have a weight of 650 to 700 grams. Khandua Silk sarees use 2 Ply Bangalore x 3 ply Malda Silk with a weight of 380-450 grams.

In cotton Sambalpuri Sarees the count is about 2/120s x 2/140s or 2/120s x 2/120s with a reed and pick of 72 and 76. Whereas in Khandua it is 2/100s x 2/100s, 2/80s x 2/80s or 2/100s x 2/80s with reed and pick of 64 and 72. One warp for Sambalpuri is only 2-4 sarees; whereas for Khandua, it is upto 30 sarees. Also Sambalpuri sarees are Manufactured in the Sambalpuri and Bargarh regions of Orissa, whereas Khandua sarees are manufactured in Nuapatna.

To translate the above for a layman, Khandua sarees are less finer and has less weight ( silk) as compared to the Sambalpuri sarees.

This is not to say that Khandua sarees are in any ways inferior to Sambalpuri, the difference is more of the material used and the fineness desired.

Now if you are a buyer or a shopper, you might be led to believe by a seller that a saree is a Sambalpuri saree and he is giving you at a bargin, but in fact it is a Khandua saree from Nuapatna.

Conversely, you might find a seller is charging you more for Orissa Ikat, when in fact, he is showing you a Sambalpuri Ikat and you are comparing it with Khandua.

Sambalpuri Ikat

Nuapatna Ikat



An Amazing source on Sambalpuri Process is this

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Sunday, 29 April 2018

Orissa Diaries- Visual Blog



The pic was captured at the head office of Boyanika at Bhubaneshwar. Boyanika is a government organization promoting the handloom weavers of Orissa




 Watching a saree being woven at Barapalli Cluster of Bargarh


Watching Bandha in Preparation for Sambalpuri Ikat



Silk sarees after finishing and "ironing" being put under the sun. To "iron" the sarees are applied with water and rice starch and rolled very tightly between wooden rolls and kept under the sun. The place is Nuapatana. 



At Nuapatna - Weft yarn in preparation


Going from Bhubaneswar to Nuapatana- A long stretch of road accompanies a river branch!!!



Captured at Biju Patanayak Park Bhubaneswar.

The termites making "Valmiks" of soils. Remember Valmiki !! You can find it all the way to Nuapatana.


A classic Nuapatana Silk or "Khandua" saree


This design of Nuapatana Silk is Called "Tarawalli"




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Notes on Various Traditional Textile Clusters of Orissa





Orissa is rich with its textile heritage. As depicted by the picture above, a diversity of traditional textile products are obtained from the region. Saris in particular find a new language here. A variety of sarees from Ikat to traditional Jaala ( simplified jacquard) can be obtained from here. Here is a brief outlook of the various traditional clusters.

1. Pitala Cotton Sarees


These are simplest sarees from Orissa and are used in the daily work. These are characterized by a simple Ikat pattern at the border, pallu and butis in the body.

2. Berhampuri Silk ( Patta) Saree with Phoda Kumbha

Phoda Kumbha is a technique of producing temples at the border with the help of three shuttle technique.

These Sarees are produced by Bangalore Silk ( 2-4 ply organzine) in the warp and Malda Silks ( 4-8 ply Charkha Silks).

3. Dhalapathar Sarees

Please have a look at this link. 

4. Bomkai Sarees

Bomkai Cotton and Silk Sarees are known by the elaborate thread work. These can be compared to the Balucahris of Bengal.


5. Nuapatna Tie-Dye or Khandua Sarees vs. Sambalpuri Sarees

Nuapatna sarees are also known as Khandua Sarees.

These sarees are characterised by the characteristic ikat patterns. The main difference between Nuapatna and Sambalpuri  sarees is that the sambalpuri sarees have more elaborate and dense Ikat patterns, thereby making them more clostly. Also Sambalpuri Silk Sarees Use Mulberrry x Mulberry yarns ( 3 ply x 3 ply) and thus have a weight of 650 to 700 grams. Nuapatna Silk sarees use 2 Ply Bangalore x 3 ply Malda Silk with a weight of 380-450 grams.

In cotton Sambalpuri Sarees the count is about 2/120s x 2/140s or 2/120s x 2/120s with a reed and pick of 72 and 76. Whereas in Nuapatna it is 2/100s x 2/100s, 2/80s x 2/80s or 2/100s x 2/80s with reed and pick of 64 and 72. One warp for Sambalpuri is only 2-4 sarees; whereas for Nuaptna, it is upto 30 sarees.

Nuapatna Cotton



Sambalpuri Cotton



6. Pasapalli Sarees

Pasapalli Sarees are those woven in the town of Bargarh. They have patterns inspired from those of chess board. The weave is used as Double Ikat in the typical Sambalpuri Style


7. Habaspuri Sarees

The design of Hawaspuri sarees are inspired from the designs of Kalahandi.

8. Dongria and Siminoi Sarees

These sarees are produced in the Nuapatana cluster of Orissa. they have a characteristic woven pattern at the Pallu produced by local jacquard or Jaala. Click here to know more about them.

9. Tussar Ghicha Saree

Apart from this, Gopalpur village specializes in making Tussar Ghicha sarees, with temples at the border created by tye-dye techniques. The Pallu has usually Ikat horizontal patterns, either in Sambalpuri or in Nuapatana styles.







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