Tuesday, 29 December 2015

What is Pita or Pitta Work

Pitta work is an ancient work of embroidery in which first the filling is done with the help of metal wires and then it it beaten so that the texture becomes uniform.

Watch this video to understand Pitta work.

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Saturday, 28 November 2015

Ahimsa Silk-Revisited

I have written several times earlier on this topic. Today's writing is prompted by watching a video on Ahimsa silk. Mr. Kusuma Rajaiah has patented this technology of getting silk from mulberry silk worm without having to boil them.

Basically he buys cocoons from the market, allows the worms to escape and then send the cocoons to mills for carding and combing process to obtain the spun yarn.

In the documentary, weavers told that the yarn made by this technique is much finer and smoother than the filament yarn.

As a lot of cocoon filament is damaged in the process of escape of silk moth, the production cost is almost double than is obtained by other filament yarn.

All this is good. However, my questions are more rhetorical in nature regarding this:

1. From the last thousands of years of domestication evolution has made these worms blind and incapable to defend. Also they are unable to eat anything once they come out of cocoon. Which means if they are not dying of stifling, they will die of starvation or will be eaten away by birds. Which death is more severe and longer, who is responsible for it, and which one is more "Ahinsak" that is the question.

2. As almost double the cocoons are required for making a garment, it means we are letting double the moths starve or eaten away. Also there is a resource requirement to get it processed in factories. We are also snatching the livelihood that is obtained when manual operations of reeling and spinning.

Don't know what is right. Any ways, a very interesting video.

You can watch it here

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Saturday, 31 October 2015

What is TR Fabric

TR fabric refers to Terry Rayon, a fabric made with a polyester/viscose blend yarn. Generally it is used for suitings.

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Saturday, 15 August 2015

Notes on Procion Printing

Notes on Procion Printing

1. Types of Procion Colors

Procion M

- Highest Reactivity
- very important
- Used for steaming as well as non steaming fixation
- Can be used for resist printing also.
- Doesn't Mix with H and Supra Types dyes.
- The stock is not very stable and has to be used immediately after it is prepared.

Procion H

- Lowest Reactivity
- Stable Stock
- Used only when fixation is done by steaming

Procion Supra
- More reactivity than H
- High color fastness.



A. One stage process

1. Alkali present in the printing paste
2. Development is done by steaming or baking.

B. Two stage process

1. No alkali present in the printing paste.
2. Alkali used before or after printing


In cotton it is 5-10%, in viscose it is 100-200 percent.

Urea has three purposes:

1. It increases the solubility of dye stuff with low water solubility.
2. Increases the formation of condensate necessary for allowing migration of the dyestuff from paste to the fiber.
3. Non constant operating conditions can negatively affect reproducibility if urea is not used.

Stock Paste
Resist Salt- 1%
Alkali ( Soda Bi carbor sod carb)- 1.5%

Resist salt is used to prevent back printing.

How to make it

1. 1st Method
a. Mix all chemicals except water.
b. Add color by using high speed stirrer

2nd Method

a. Heat water by adding urea
b. Add color
c. Add thickning paste using High Speed Stirrer.
d. Add Dissolved alkali.

How to develop Color

1. One stage process

a. Steaming: for procion H and Supra- 5-15 min, for procion M- 15 seconds. - Moist Steam
b. Baking- Dry after printing & Baking. Keep concentration of urea more.
Procion M- 110 deg C, for three minutes for cotton and 140 deg C for viscose 140 for 3 minutes.

2. Two Stage Process

1. Flush Aging: No Alkali in mixture, can be done at high speed.

a. Dried printed fabric is pad in cold alkali solution with salt
b. It is than steamed
c. Good printing as done as there is no alkali.
d. Fixation takes only 40 seconds.
e. Printed cloth can be kept in warehouse without developing.

2. Air Hanging Process- Not useful for procion H

1. First unprinted fabric is padded with 2% soda ash and dried.
2. Make printing solution without alkali
3. Print 1 and 2 and keep in air for several hours.

3. Vat Development

a. No alkali in the mixture.
b. The cloth is passed through hot alkali solution after printing.

4. Pad ( Alkali) - Batching

a. First cloth is printed without alkali in the stock solution.
b. Then cloth is padded with sodium silicate ( 100 Tw)
c. Cloth is then batched for 3 hours for H and 10 mintues for M.
d. It is then washed and dried

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