Sunday 30 January 2011

How to Calculate Maximum EPI and PPI for a Fabric with Given Count

A Reader has asked me this question:

“ I want to know how to calculate max EPI and PPI of the given count. For Example, if we take 50s pv warp X 150 D  100% polyester weft, what will the max EPI and PPI if we weave it for plain, 2/2 twill,and satin.”

Here Mr. Ashenhurst can rescue us. The following method is based on his book “Textile Calculation and Structure of Fabrics”. Here the assumption is there is only one count of thread in both warp and weft. If there are two different counts of warp and wefts, threads per inch should be found out for both of them and then suitably adjusted.

The General formula to calculate Maximum EPI and PPI for a Given count of Warp and Weft

Now in a plain weave in a repeat there are 2 threads and 2 intersections. For 2/2 Twill in one repeat of 4 threads there will be 4 threads and 2 intersections.
Also as a rule please remember that 40s count yarn diameter is 1/165 of an inch.
To convert it to the yarn diameter of 50s warp we use the following formula

Which means for 50s PV Warp the diameter will be

Thus the Maximum Threads per inch for a plain weave will be 184 as this will be the diameter of the Yarn.

For 2/2 Twill be they will be ( From the Formula above)

Which means x will be equal to 122 threads per inch

Similarly for Satin weave one can find out the maximum ends and picks per inch

Please remember however that this is theoretical construct. Actual threads per inch are generally less than that.

To Calculate the Cotton Equivalent of 150 D, We use the formulaà count= 5315/denier, Which means it is equal to 35.43 or 35 count.

The Diameter for 35 count yarn will be ( Using the formula above) = 154.34 th of an inch

Then you can use the same equation to calculate the Maximum EPI and PPI

In these examples there is no allowance for bending, shrinkage or compression, the threads should be reduced or increased proportionately in case the fabric is subjected to bending, shrinkage or compression.

Saturday 15 January 2011

Indian Traditional Textiles- The document

Sindhi Taropa Style of Kathiawar

The Sindhi Taropa denotes the interlacing stich embroidery-- the basic structure which is first built up with the use of long thread stitches into the surface and entire structure being built up thereafter by looping these threads, the overall effect produced is geometrical; floral patterns or figures, whatever is worked out through this type of stitch become-somewhat stylized. Practically the stitch is used as a means of achieving only an impression of the figure or motif which is aimed at.

Friday 14 January 2011

How to calculate the weight of Fabric

How to Calculate Warp and Weft Yarn Required for a Standard 100m of Fabric

Here is one Query:

"I run a small business of supplying 100% cotton fabric to exporters . As you are aware the cotton yarn prices are on the rise on a daily basis, and the rates that I get from vendors is totally disproportionate to the rise in price. In this regard I request you to kindly teach me a formula to calculate the wrap and weft yarn required for a standard 100 meters of fabric in required widths of 47" and 60". Please suggest the formula in cotton counts."

We need a few things to start Calculating the weight

1.      Yarn count of Warp and Weft
2.      Ends per inch ( Reed) and Picks per inch ( Picks) of the fabric
3.      Width of the Fabric

I am assuming the following ( If you don’t understand, please don’t bother about this, you will be able to calculate the weight of the yarn with certain accuracy) :

1.      Warp Crimp 10%
2.      Weft Crimp 3%

Weight of one meter of Fabric in Grams =((Ends per Inch x Width in Inch x 1.10)/(Warp Count x 840) + (Picks per Inch x Width in Inch x 1.03)/(Weft Count x 840)) x (1.09x 1000/2.2)

Take Ends/Inch and Multiply by Width in inches and 1.10. Divide this quantity by Warp count multiplied by 840. This will give you weight of Warp in pounds of one yard (a). To find the weight of the warp in one meter of fabric in grams multiply (a) by 1.09 and 1000 and divide by 2.2.

Take Picks per inch Multiply by width in inches and 1.03. Divide this quantity by Weft Count multiplied by 840. This will give you Weight of weft in one yard of fabric (b). To find the weight of the weft in one meter of fabric in grams multiply (b) by 1.09 and 1000 and divide by 2.2

Now Add (a) and (b) to get the total weight of warp and weft in one yard of fabric. Let us say this value is (c). Now Multiply (c) by 1.09 and 1000 and divide it by 2.2 to get the weight of one meter of fabric in grams.  Multiply it by 100 to get the weight of 100 meters of fabric in Grams. 

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Tuesday 11 January 2011

All About Ajrak Process

This ( is an amazing website giving in amazing details the process of Ajrak Printing. Owned by Ranamal Khatri, the master craftman, this website can be used as an authentic one to study the process.I met Mr. Ranamal Khatri during my visit to Jodhpur. This site will give you a glimpse of the joy of watching Ajrak Made. This gives in details the process, the receipe, the comparison with the earlier process and a mouth-watering view of the products. To top it all, he has put in the process video wherein one can have a look at the process in action. And last but not the least, a look at the artisans working in his workshop and who have made it possible is given. Here are some pictures from the website:


Video of the Process

Ajrak Saris


Awards won by Him 
There is a very good M.Des. Research done by B. Sinduja. You can access it here

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Monday 10 January 2011

Vocabulary of Kantha

Here is a website that gives you the vocabulary of Kantha alongwith the basic stitches.




Types of Dyes used in Handblock Printing

The following is a brief description of the chemical dyes used in handblock printing in India:

Pigment dyes
Pigment colors are mixed with kerosene and a binder. The mixed color can be stored for a few days. The motif is printed directly on white or light-colored ground with a variety of pigment colors. Pigment colors are widely popular today because the process is simple, the mixed colors can be stored for a period of time, subtle nuances of colors are possible, and new shades evolve with the mixing of two or three colors. Also the colors are visible as one prints and do not change after processing. Colors can be tested before printing by merely applying it onto the fabric. The pigment color is made up of tiny particles, which do not dissolve entirely and hence are deposited on the cloth surface while rapid dyes and indigo sols penetrate the cloth.

Rapid fast Colors
In this process, the ground color and the color in the design are printed on white and/or light-colored grounds in one step. The dyes once mixed for printing have to be used the same day. Standard colors are black, red, orange, brown and mustard. Color variation is somewhat difficult and while printing it is not possible to gauge the quality or depth of color.

Discharge Dyes
These dyes are used if you need to print onto a dark background. Medium to dark grounds are dyed on fabric with specially prepared dyestuff . The printing colors then used on the fabric contain a chemical that interacts with the dye. This interaction simultaneously bleaches the color from the dyed ground and prints the desired color on its place. Areas can also be discharged and left white. The primary advantage of this process is that vivid and bright colors along with white can be printed on top of medium and dark grounds. 
These are two sets of chemicals which upon reaction produce a third chemical essentially colorful in nature. Fabric is dyed in one and later printed with the other. The chemical reaction produces a third color. However, the biggest drawback of this process is that there are just a few chemicals available which produce colors upon reaction.

See the images of these prints here :              

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Sunday 9 January 2011

Why Different types of Reactive Dyes Dye differently

Almost all the reactive dyes are built on a similar structure (Remazol Dye from Hoechst is the exception). This structure consists of (1) a chromophore (the color-bearing group), (2) a reactive group (usually a heterocyclic carbon-nitrogen ring system), and (3) a "leaving group" which is part of the carbon-nitrogen group which is generally a halogen compound (chlorine family).

Influence of Dye characteristics in reactive dyeing:

The major dye variables that affect reactive dyeing are dye chemistry, substantivity,Reactivity and solubility.

Dye chemistry:

Reactive dye has a wide variety in terms of their chemical structure. The two most important component of a reactive dye are the chromophore and the reactive group. The characteristics governed by the chromophore are color gamut, light fastness, chlorine / bleach fastness, solubility, affinity and diffusion.

The dye characteristics governed by reactive group are reactivity, dye-fiber bond stability, and efficiency of reaction with the fiber and affinity. Dyeing conditions, especially the alkali requirements and temperature as well as the use of salt also depends upon the type of reactive group.


The affinity of dye for a given substrate ( textile material) is called substantivity

Substantivity more depends upon chromophore as compared to reactive system. A high substantivity may results:
• Lower dye solubility.
• High primary exhaustion.
• A high reaction rate.
• Lower diffusion coeffecient.

A low sensitivity of dyes to the variation in the processing conditions such as time, temperature, pH, material to liquor ratio may results:
• Less diffusion.
• Less migration and levelness.
• More difficult to the removal of unfixed dyes.

Substantivity is also the best measure of the ability of a dye to cover dead cotton or immature cotton fibers. Covering power is best when the substantivity is either high or very low. An increase in the dye substantivity may be affected by:
• Lower concentration of dyes.
• Higher concentration of electrolyte.
• Lower temperature.
• Higher pH upto 11.
• Lower liquor to material ratio (M:L)


High dye reactivity entails a lower dyeing time and lower efficiency of fixation. To improve the efficiency of fixation by reducing dye reactivity requires a longer dyeing time and therefore less effective than an increase in substativity. Also there is wide range of temperature and pH over which the dye can be applied. Altering the pH or temperature, two dyes of intricsically different reactivity may be made to react at a similar rate can modify reactivity of dye.


Dyes of better solubility can diffuse easily and rapidly into the fibers, resulting in better migration and leveling. Increasing the temperature, adding urea and decreasing the use of electrolyte may affect on increase in dye solubility.

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Saturday 8 January 2011

Textile and Comfort

People have always been interested in the connection between clothing and physical well-being.Comfort has its physiological, physical-chemical and psychological components. Major components in case of textiles are Warmth, Absorbing capacity and humidity, General comfort , Cloth convenience , Skin perception , Weight and Softness. Out of these major part of comfort is directly related to the body temperature. Thus any clothing can be measured on comfort by the fact that how well it can regulate the temperature of the body. Sweating is the most effective way the human body has of cooling down. How well can a clothing provide comfort depends upon (among other factors) how well it can handle sweating.

The most effective cooling is achieved by sweat evaporating directly on the skin. Thus any clothing that behaves closest to the skin is comfortablee. The ability of a textile to transport perspiration in the form of vapour through itself and out to the exterior is generally referred to as its breathability. It is incorrect to use the terms breathability (or resistance to water vapour) and air permeability interchangeably, because low air permeability does not in itself result in lower breathability. The best example of this is modern wind- and waterproof membranes, which allow very little air to permeate in from outside (windproof), but still allow evaporated perspiration to pass through from the inside.

Fiber characteristics influence breathability the most. However contrary to popular belief,synthetic fibers are not always bad in terms of comfort. If textiles made from synthetic fibres were properly designed, they could not only offer the same heat and moisture management qualities as natural fibres but even exceed them.For example in in double faced clothings, layers of natural and synthetic fibres were combined, yet kept separate. The synthetic fibres of the "double face material" were next to the skin and conducted perspiration quickly and efficiently away from the body and into the outer cotton layer. In combination, the two materials were far more comfortable than cotton, because of the drier feeling on the skin."

There are some interesting developments in getting comfort characteristcs of fabrics they include a gradual variation in the fineness of the fibres and yarns from the inner surface of the textile to the outer surface. It improves moisture management; because the resulting narrowing of the capillaries (denier gradient) means that the moisture can be transported away from the skin really effectively. Other measeures include integrating electrical and electronic components such as heating or cooling elements. The latest battery technology and innovative methods of processing and wiring.


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