Thursday, 10 April 2014

Banarasi Saris

Here are some of the interesting tables regarding Banarasi Saris obtained from this source. These tables depict the composition of these saris, time taken to weave one sari and the techno economic aspects.

Wednesday, 9 April 2014

Value Chain Analysis of Shantipuri Sarees

Source and 2

1. There are three types of Sarees popular in the region: Jamdani Sarees of Nabadip, Shantipuri of Shantipur and Tangail variety of Phulia.

2. The weavers of Shantipur have made themselves famous by their professional aptitude in making Tant  or Taant Saree. There are two types of Taant Sarees, Tangail and Dhanikhali. Here Jacquard weaving technique is used in these sarees.

3. The sarees are famous for designs used with extra warp in the border and cotton ground base. Muga, Twisted cotton, zari, viscose and polyester are used for the extra warp.

4. Depending upon the design, color, pattern, Shantipuri sarees are named as Nilambari, Gangajamuna, Benkipur, Bhomra, Rajmahal, Chandmala, Anshpar, Brindabani Mour Par, Do Rookha

Nilambari Saree
5. Mostly fly shuttle pit looms of width 130-140 cm are used in the cluster with 100-150 hook jacquard. 99% of the looms have jacquard attachment.

6. Average production per weaver per week of 6 days: 5 sarees

7. Value Chain Analysis
Saree is the major cluster product, the value chain for a Santipuri cotton saree with border is analysed as under

-  Raw material accounts to 50.6% in Santipur cotton sarees.
Value addition in weaving including preparatory works to 30.5 % with respect to the cost price.
- Dyeing is nearly 3.8% of the cost price of the saree.
- Margin to the master weaver exclusive of marketing costs is 8.5% as the cost price of the saree.

8. About the various Sarees:


The terms Nilambari is applied as the ground warp and weft yarns are dyed with the indigenous indigo colour. Mainly cotton yarns are used for warp & weft. The colour is extracted from the leaves of the herb indigo ere tinctoria. The leaves are harvested steeped in water and allowed to ferment. A blue substance that settled as sludge in the bottom vessel is derived and sold as indigo cakes. The colour is pleasing and will not fade. The colour resembles the dark blue of the clear night sky. The rich sarees are ornamented treated designs. In some sarees the technique of weaving the designs in ground and anchal is same as Jmdani.


The name of the saree is derived for the use of different colours in border i.e one side red and the other black. The ground warp is grey cotton.


In the saree the aesthetic value of the border design is prominent due to the use of muga and zari( 4 in a dent ) in extra warp. The name of the saree is derived from the diagonal pointed twill lines in the border. 


The name is derived from the hernet & bumble-bee. Indigo black, red & chocolate are the common colours. In border Kashmiri silk i.e 20/22 organza silk yarns were very commonly used. For extra warp twisted cotton yarn, zari & muga were used.


The yarn used for border is similar to Benki-Par saree. The motif in border is diamond twill. The name of the saree is indicated according to the enclosed space of the diamond twill weave.


 The type of yarn in border was zari only. The only difference is the motif i.e fish scale for which the name of the saree is termed as Anshpar.


The name of the saree is derived from the round motif i.e. depiction of moon. Here the extra warp is cotton or golden zari. The border is twisted cotton yarn.

Visva – Bharati

The speciality of the saree is for using two different coloured cotton yarns in extra warp. Coloured extra warp yarns are distributed throughout the width of the motif in border. The denting order for these is six per dent of a reed i.e. 4 extra and 2 grounds in borders. As a result of colour distribution, reversible colour effect is visible in same side of border. Usually red and black coloured yarns are selected for extra warp while the yarn for ground border (khas) is yellow cotton. Thus variety of saree came into production after the introduction of jacquard only i.e. 1950.


This is almost similar to above variety with the exception of yarn used for extra warp. Unlike above, the ground border yarn is not visible. The zari & coloured yarns are used in the ratio of 2:2. It is two sided or two-faced weave. In “Do-rookha” both the sides are exactly identical.

Brindabani Mour Par

Here the border is depicted by two peacocks sitting face to face on a tree. Cotton yarn is used for both border and ground. Jacquard is used for design.

Tuesday, 8 April 2014

Value Chain Analysis of Bomkai Sarees, Orissa


1. The tie-dye weaving in Orissa came into existence during mid of 14th century when 100 weaver's families were brought from Raipur area of M.P. by the then ruler of Patnagarh Shri Ramai Dev. The weavers later on titled as Meher and their caste known as Bhulia.

2. The Bomkai Designs are the traditional designs in production in the village named Bomkai in Ganjam District of Orissa. Latter on it is introduced in Sonepur.

3. Silk yarn was introduced in 1980s. The body part of silk fabric was woven with silk yarns and Anchal by cotton tie and dye. The Bomkai design were developed in late 80s and introduced in early 90s.

4. There are three different patterns of production:

a. The independent weaver purchases yarns and other essential raw material on his own money, weaves clothes and sells the produce on his own either in the open market or to the traders and middleman.

b. The master weaver advance yarn and raw materials to the weavers and pay wages to them on receipt of woven cloth.

c. Instead of master weaver, there are cooperatives who do this function.

5. Both the warp and weft are dyed by this process in accordance with the requirement of the design. For border design the warp alone is processed. For Palavas or Anchals of the sari, the weft is processed (now jala designs are also preferred) and for the overall body designs both the warp and weft is processed.

6. The weavers make warp for two pieces of sarees at a time of 6.5 meters each.

7. Poor Dyeing: colour fastness is the major problem in cotton sari if exposed to sun or continuous hand washing. It was found that in cotton sari, the boarder and anchal portion fade while the body colour of the sari is intact. Colour bleeding is the major problem with silk sari.

8. Value Chain Analysis of Silk and Cotton Bomkai Sarees

Sunday, 6 April 2014

Chanderi Saris - Value Chain Analysis and a discussion on Flaws

The following material is derived from this source:

1. Chanderi is originally produced with three kinds of fiber mix:

a. Pure Silk: Here the warp and weft both are woven with 13/15 denier silk
b. Chanderi Cotton: Where the warp and weft are 100s or 120s cotton.
c. Silk Cotton: The 13/15 denier warp is combined with 100s or 120s cotton

The figured effects are produced with the help of extra weft.

The difference between Chanderi and Varanasi products are while chanderi uses 13/15 denier, Varanasi weave uses 20/22 denier. Now chanderi saris also use 20/22 denier silk.

The looms are the old pit looms situated in dimly lighted sheds where the whole family lives, cooks, weaves and sleeps.

Silk is generally bought in grey hanks to be dyed locally. On the other hand 80% of the cotton is bought dyed from South India and Mumbai by local merchants.

Cotton and Silk yarn is obtained from Bangalore and zari is obtained from Ahmedabad.

Production Process

Time Estimates

1. Min quantity of Silk yarn for dyeing is 25 kg or 10 hanks. It takes about 45-60 minutes depending upon the color.

2. Warping - yarn for warp to wind around a wooden drum. A warper would wind 4-5 warps of 12 sarees each.

3. Drawing in- It takes about 3-4 days per warp

4. Setting of the Jala for design of border and Pallu: 3-4 days depending upon the complexity.

5. The chanderi fabic doesn't require any postloom process and cut off from the loom and cut and sold.

Value Chain Analysis

The following is the value addition  in percentage, at each stage of the Sari making:

1. Dyeing: 2
2. Warping: 2
3. Filling of Reed with Yarn: 7
4. Design Preparation: 2
5. Joining of yarn for the new lot: 2
6. Border design Makers: 0.5
7. Motif Design Makers: 0.5
8. Weaving: 30
9. Master Weaver/Cooperative Societies:provides raw material, design and marketing:  54

"There is a problem of colour-run with the fabrics produced in the cluster. Especially the problem in
silk related dyeing is on account of de-gumming. The Chanderi fabric derives its distinctiveness
from the material gums and in order to retain that the fabric cannot be dyed at high temperatures. "

Also "The temperature is approximately measured by hand. As there is no thermometer in use or a stove
with temperature control. The quantity of color, the time for which the hank is soaked, all these
factors lend an element of variation in dyeing. This particularly has an adverse bearing when more
then one hank has to be dyed in the same color".

Saturday, 5 April 2014

Value Chain Analysis in a readymade garment manufacturing unit

The following is quoted verbatim from this source:

Value Chain analysis

As there are a number of items and different types of raw material i.e. cotton, polyester blends, viscose, etc. used by the RMG industry, it is not possible to give value chain analysis for all the products. After discussing with the units, the value chain analysis has been done on percentage basis as given here under –

1. Basic raw materials i.e. Grey Fabric - 50 to 60% (of sale price of products)
2. Processing charges
 (i.e. Bleach or dyeing or printing) - 10 to 15%
3. Cutting and fabrication - 10 to 15%
4. Fittings and Accessories - 10%
5. Finishing and Packaging - 5 to 6%
Embroidery and Handwork (if needed) - 25% (extra on nominal sale price)

For example, if we take the garment of costing Rs.100/- without embroidery) the value chain analysis will be as under –
1. Grey fabric - 50.00
2. Processing charges - 15.00
3. Cutting and fabrication - 10.00
4. Fittings and accessories
 including buttons - 05.00
5. Finishing and packaging - 6.00
 Total 86.00
 Market Price - Rs.100.00
 Gross Margin - Rs. 14.00
Net profit is much lower after adjusting the expenses for establishment, electricity, transportation, depreciation etc.
 Cost with embroidery will be - Rs.108.00
 Market price with embroidery - Rs.125.00

Powerloom Clusters in India- A case of Tamil Nadu

The following are some of the observations:

1. The average production of grey fabric per loom per day is 30 meters.

2. For grey varieties, the beam length is observed to be of 1000 meters and max of 4750 meters.

3. For Sarees, the beam length is of 400 meters to 1000 meters.

4. 50% of the powerlooms operate in one shift and 50% in two shifts. As the powerlooms are working on jobwork basis, and they switch over to two shifts only if the jobwork is available. Also there is a restriction on the working of powerloom in the nights. The number of working hours for the units with one shift is 10 to 12 per day. Those which are working in two shifts work from 8 to 10 hours per day.

5. In case of sarees the powerlooms work in one shift only due to the design restrictions.

6. 95% of the units work in the range of 20-25 days in a month. In a year, 90% of the units work for 10 months and above.

7. In grey fabric production one weaver attend to normally 6 looms, if there are no dobby or jaquard deign. For all yarn dyed fabric, one weaver attends to about 2 looms. For sarees, it is one loom pere weaver.

There are two types of Production Activities followed:

1. Job work Units producing Greige Fabric

2. Entrepreneurial Units carrying out own production

In 1. The warp beam and the weft yarn is provided by the master weaver. The fabric is converted and supplied back to the master weaver.

In this case there are several disadvantages: As the job work unit supply the grey fabric without inspection, the quality of the fabric may not be best and depends upon the available infrastructure and resources.

As there are no inspection facilities so feedback is not scientific. Absence of stop motions - warp and weft as well as untrained weavers create a lot of defects. The product may have stains due to incorrect handling by weavers. Improper ventilation and housekeeping leads to lot of foreign matter in the end product.

In 2. The yarn is procured, dyed and converted.

The flow chart of the various production models are as given below:

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