Thursday 15 November 2018

Can Wet Rubbing Fastness Greater than Dry Rubbing Fastness

Usually, Wet rubbing fastness ratings are lower than those of dry rubbing. However, there may be cases when it is reversed. As per Texanlab manual:

"This is sometimes observed in polyester fabrics. In these cases, the friction coefficient in wet crocking is lower than  dry crocking. Thus, in contrast to cotton, the colorfastness to wet crocking for polyester is higher than its colorfastness to dry crocking."

Other Resources:


How a Rubbing Fastness Tester Works. Watch this video:

Buy my books at

Saturday 3 November 2018

Jaipur Printing- Jajam Print

Textile with Jajam prints used to play a great role in the social life of Rajasthan. These textiles used to get spread out on special occasion. It used to be printed in the region of Chittor, where it is spread for playing chaupad, an Indian version of Chess.

An amazing account of this craft is found here.  Anokhi Museum Blog talks a lot about it.

This video is posted by Mr. Brij Ballabh Udaiwal on Facebook:


Buy my books at

Sunday 28 October 2018

What are Rapid Fast Dyes

The Rapid dyes are stabilized azoic dyestuffs. These are also called as Napthol dyes

 They are applied to the fibers in one operation.

 Bright full colors are obtained with very good fastness properties.

Printing and dyeing with Rapid fast dyes is getting very popular specially in the traditional garments such as sarees. 

Rapid fast dyes is a class of Azoic dyes. These dyes contain an insoluble azo group. These dyes are not found in the readymade form. The dye is produced by a reaction between two components. These components are: 

1. Coupling compound ( Napthol)
2. Di-azo compound or di-azo salt. 

They have excellent wash fastness and light fastness properties, provided these are produced properly.

How the reaction Takes place

1. Naptholisation: Napthols are insoluble in water and they are converted into water soluble compound by treating with alkali. The material is treated with this solution. 

It is important to remove excess napthol from material for improving rubbing fastness. This is done with the help of centrifuging, squeezing or vacuus extraction. 

2. Diazotisation:  A base containing amino group (-NH2) ( which is the dye stuff), reacts with Sodium nitrite to form a solution of diazonium salt by reacting with HCL of H2SO4 in presence of 0 to 50 deg C temperature. Ice is used sometimes for the low temperature, hence they are also called Ice-colors.

3. Coupling: The treated material from the first step is then put in a bath containing diazonium solution to carry out the coupling. Thus the color is produced inside the fabric. The pH is very important here.

The material then is agitated with first water and then boiling water to remove un-reacted color and to enlarge the size of color molecules inside the fiber. 

These are used for producing bright shades of color such as orange, red, scarlet, navy and black.  

These are also used for printing backgrounds so that the foreground becomes prominent. Hence these are suitable where large areas of ground need to be colored. Rapid dyes are mixed with water and boiled with caustic soda and a gum paste. A receipe for rapid dyes is given here.

Certain azo dyes are known to release some aromatic amines which are considered to be carcinogenic. A lot of countries have put ban on these dyes, as discharge of the untreated dyes lead to the toxic pollution of the atmosphere and water. 

Watch this video on how to dye with Azoic dyes in Laboratory

Source: 1 2 3

Thursday 25 October 2018

What is Space Dyeing and What are Space Dyed Fabrics

Space dyeing is a yarn dyeing technique in which a multicolor or blurred dye look is created. It creates a textured pattern and provides more color in the fabric.

Space dyeing can be done in any type of fiber- natural or synthetic. It is normally done on polyester, cotton, rayon, nylon and wool. 

In this method, the yarn is dyed at intervals along its length. There are two methods to produce. In the knit-de-knit method, the yarn is knitted first. Then the knitted cloth is dyed and then it is de-knitted. As dye cannot penetrate the areas where yarn cross, it creates alternate dyed and undyed spaces.

 In the other method, which is also a high speed method, the yarn must be wound on some dye package. It can be Dye Spring, plastic tube or steel tube. The chemicals are color mixtures are mixed and put in the individual color tanks of a space dyeing machine. Dyes are then injected using needles which are inserted into the package.

After dyeing the packages are placed in yarn conditioning machine for fixation and subsequently washed.

The below image gives the process steps

Multiple pattens can be produced as given below


1 2 3 4 5

Buy my books at

Tuesday 1 May 2018

What is the difference of Modal from Viscose

Modal is type of Rayon, however it is different from Viscose in many aspects.

Viscose fiber, is one of the most widely used man-made fiber as it is versatile , affordable and its properties resemble to cotton .However, ordinary viscose staple fibers have low initial modulus i.e. they can be easily stretched under low load specially in wet condition . It has poor elastic recovery and is very sensitive to the effect of moisture.

Modal fiber, introduced in the year 1930 seems to be the right answer to these disadvantages. Modal as defined by the International Bureau for Standardization of Manmade Fibers (BISFA) is a distinct viscose rayon fibre genre, which has a higher wet modulus and satisfies a minimum value of tenacity in the wet stage at 5% elongation.

Modal has number of advantages over viscose fiber and mercerised Cotton.

1. Modal posses lower elongation and higher wet modulus as it has higher rate of polymerization than viscose.

2. Its exceptional similarity to cotton and silk in terms of texture (luster, sheen and gloss) results in a surface smoother than mercerized cotton .

3. It can be blended with almost all textile fibres, viz. cotton, wool, silk and other synthetic fibers.

4. Modal displays high dimensional stability, both for low shrinkage and low unrecoverable extension.

5. It is more hygroscopic in nature than cotton i.e. absorbs 50% more water than cotton, has more tensile strength with excellent wear resistance and is less likely to form pills as a result of friction.

6. Modal is also resistant to wear and strong while maintaining a soft, silky feel. Modal fibres have found a wide variety of uses in clothing, outwear and household furnishings.

7. Textiles made from modal fibres do not fibrillate, or pill, like cotton does and are resistant to shrinkage and fading .

8. It causes reduced growth of bacteria when compared to cotton, if both stored for the same period of time and it age like cotton.

Today, Modal is widely used in clothing as a replacement for cotton or mercerized cotton and viscose. (Source)

In addition to this, here is a guide to the various brand names of fibers to their generic names.

Want to go in more depth, here is an article.

Buy my books at

What is the difference between Khandua and Sambalpuri Sarees

This post can easily be labeled as how to Identify a Khandua Saree from Sambalpuri Saree. 

I am writing this post from a buyer's perspective. In general, Khandua sarees cost less than corresponding Sambalpuri sarees. 

The main difference between Khandua and Sambalpuri  sarees is that the sambalpuri sarees have more elaborate and dense Ikat patterns, thereby making them more costly. Also Sambalpuri Silk Sarees Use Mulberrry x Mulberry yarns ( 3 ply x 3 ply) and thus have a weight of 650 to 700 grams. Khandua Silk sarees use 2 Ply Bangalore x 3 ply Malda Silk with a weight of 380-450 grams.

In cotton Sambalpuri Sarees the count is about 2/120s x 2/140s or 2/120s x 2/120s with a reed and pick of 72 and 76. Whereas in Khandua it is 2/100s x 2/100s, 2/80s x 2/80s or 2/100s x 2/80s with reed and pick of 64 and 72. One warp for Sambalpuri is only 2-4 sarees; whereas for Khandua, it is upto 30 sarees. Also Sambalpuri sarees are Manufactured in the Sambalpuri and Bargarh regions of Orissa, whereas Khandua sarees are manufactured in Nuapatna.

To translate the above for a layman, Khandua sarees are less finer and has less weight ( silk) as compared to the Sambalpuri sarees.

This is not to say that Khandua sarees are in any ways inferior to Sambalpuri, the difference is more of the material used and the fineness desired.

Now if you are a buyer or a shopper, you might be led to believe by a seller that a saree is a Sambalpuri saree and he is giving you at a bargin, but in fact it is a Khandua saree from Nuapatna.

Conversely, you might find a seller is charging you more for Orissa Ikat, when in fact, he is showing you a Sambalpuri Ikat and you are comparing it with Khandua.

Sambalpuri Ikat

Nuapatna Ikat

An Amazing source on Sambalpuri Process is this

Buy my books at

Sunday 29 April 2018

Orissa Diaries- Visual Blog

The pic was captured at the head office of Boyanika at Bhubaneshwar. Boyanika is a government organization promoting the handloom weavers of Orissa

 Watching a saree being woven at Barapalli Cluster of Bargarh

Watching Bandha in Preparation for Sambalpuri Ikat

Silk sarees after finishing and "ironing" being put under the sun. To "iron" the sarees are applied with water and rice starch and rolled very tightly between wooden rolls and kept under the sun. The place is Nuapatana. 

At Nuapatna - Weft yarn in preparation

Going from Bhubaneswar to Nuapatana- A long stretch of road accompanies a river branch!!!

Captured at Biju Patanayak Park Bhubaneswar.

The termites making "Valmiks" of soils. Remember Valmiki !! You can find it all the way to Nuapatana.

A classic Nuapatana Silk or "Khandua" saree

This design of Nuapatana Silk is Called "Tarawalli"

Buy my books at

Notes on Various Traditional Textile Clusters of Orissa

Orissa is rich with its textile heritage. As depicted by the picture above, a diversity of traditional textile products are obtained from the region. Saris in particular find a new language here. A variety of sarees from Ikat to traditional Jaala ( simplified jacquard) can be obtained from here. Here is a brief outlook of the various traditional clusters.

1. Pitala Cotton Sarees

These are simplest sarees from Orissa and are used in the daily work. These are characterized by a simple Ikat pattern at the border, pallu and butis in the body.

2. Berhampuri Silk ( Patta) Saree with Phoda Kumbha

Phoda Kumbha is a technique of producing temples at the border with the help of three shuttle technique.

These Sarees are produced by Bangalore Silk ( 2-4 ply organzine) in the warp and Malda Silks ( 4-8 ply Charkha Silks).

3. Dhalapathar Sarees

Please have a look at this link. 

4. Bomkai Sarees

Bomkai Cotton and Silk Sarees are known by the elaborate thread work. These can be compared to the Balucahris of Bengal.

5. Nuapatna Tie-Dye or Khandua Sarees vs. Sambalpuri Sarees

Nuapatna sarees are also known as Khandua Sarees.

These sarees are characterised by the characteristic ikat patterns. The main difference between Nuapatna and Sambalpuri  sarees is that the sambalpuri sarees have more elaborate and dense Ikat patterns, thereby making them more clostly. Also Sambalpuri Silk Sarees Use Mulberrry x Mulberry yarns ( 3 ply x 3 ply) and thus have a weight of 650 to 700 grams. Nuapatna Silk sarees use 2 Ply Bangalore x 3 ply Malda Silk with a weight of 380-450 grams.

In cotton Sambalpuri Sarees the count is about 2/120s x 2/140s or 2/120s x 2/120s with a reed and pick of 72 and 76. Whereas in Nuapatna it is 2/100s x 2/100s, 2/80s x 2/80s or 2/100s x 2/80s with reed and pick of 64 and 72. One warp for Sambalpuri is only 2-4 sarees; whereas for Nuaptna, it is upto 30 sarees.

Nuapatna Cotton

Sambalpuri Cotton

6. Pasapalli Sarees

Pasapalli Sarees are those woven in the town of Bargarh. They have patterns inspired from those of chess board. The weave is used as Double Ikat in the typical Sambalpuri Style

7. Habaspuri Sarees

The design of Hawaspuri sarees are inspired from the designs of Kalahandi.

8. Dongria and Siminoi Sarees

These sarees are produced in the Nuapatana cluster of Orissa. they have a characteristic woven pattern at the Pallu produced by local jacquard or Jaala. Click here to know more about them.

9. Tussar Ghicha Saree

Apart from this, Gopalpur village specializes in making Tussar Ghicha sarees, with temples at the border created by tye-dye techniques. The Pallu has usually Ikat horizontal patterns, either in Sambalpuri or in Nuapatana styles.

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Total Pageviews