Friday 23 April 2010

How to crinkle a Fabric

In the basic process, the fabric is soaked in water. It is then twisted into the form of tight rope. It is then again twisted in on itself until becoming basically a ball of twisted fabric. The ends are tucked in so the fabric doesn't come untwisted. Then it is dried using microwave or other means. It is not recommended that the damp twisted fabric ball be left overnight otherwise it will mildew.

This is an amazing article on how to crinkle a fabric.

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Sunday 11 April 2010

What is the difference among Mulberry, Tussar ( Tasar), Muga and ERI Silk

The difference is in the type of worms producing the yarn and the types of leaves they eat.

Mulberry Silk is obtained from BOMBYX MORI feeding on MULBERRY leaves.

Tussar Silk is obtained from ANTHEREA MYLITTA feeding on ARJUN and ASAN leaves.

Muga Silk is obtained from ANTHEREA ASSAMENSIS feeding on SOM and SUALU leaves.

Eri Silk is obtained from CYNTHIA RICINI  feeding on CASTOR OIL leaves.

The eri silk worm is the only completely domesticated silkworm other than Bombyx mori.

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Spinning Mills Vs. Garment Sector: Who will bear the Burden

This Article is related to Textile Industry in India

With the rising cotton yarn prices, the garment manufacturers are feeling the heat. Unable to pass on the price hike to the customers, they are turning back to the government for relief. The government has done its part by the following measures:

1. Government has withdrawn 7.67 percent DEPB Benefits for cotton yarn exports.

2. It has also introduced a cess on export of cotton yarn.

This step is take with the following assumptions:

a. Cotton yarn prices have increased because of rising export demands.

b. It is hampering the domestic garment producers and exporters.

c. While domestic markets are able to absorb the increased cost, recession hit West is unable to.

d. It is difficult to pass on the price increase to the customers.

But Will it lead to desirable results

Arguments against

a.  Social Argument: Spinning mills in the country have suffered huge losses during the last two years. They need to make some profits this year.

b. The problem could be solved by giving more assistance to the garment exports to absorb thee additional costs.

c. Less than 20% of cotton yarn produced get exported. Total exports of cotton yarn this year are less than that of last year.

d. The cut in DEPB will not affect much as long as the  global markets are able to absorb the additional costs.

e. The problem can also be solved by improving production efficiencies in Garment manufacturing units so that they can absorb the high yarn prices without passing them on to the customer.

f. It is not only raw-material prices that have gone up. Labor cost and power cost have also increased.

Arguments in Favour

a. In Tirupur, there is an 11% drop in shipments over last year of knitted fabrics.

b. Spinning mills have jacked up cotton yarn prices disproportionately vis-a-vis input costs. Thus eg. raw material prices have risen by 1.79%, but yarn prices have gone up by more than 10%.

What is your opinion ? Write your comments 

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Thursday 8 April 2010

Principle of Soft Flow Dyeing Machine

Textile material can be dyed using batch, continuous or semi continuous process.

Batch processes are the most common method used to dye textile materials. There are three general types of batch dyeing machines:
  1. In which fabric is circulated
  2. In which dye bath is circulated
  3.  In which both the bath and material is circulated.
Jet dyeing is the best example of a machine that circulated both the fabric and the dyebath. Jet dyeing is used for knitted fabrics. For Terry-towels soft flow dyeing is use.

In jet dyeing machine the fabric is transported by a high speed jet of dye liquid.

As seen in the figure, this pressure is created by venturi. A powerful pump circulates the dyed bath through a heat exchanger and the cloth chamber. Cloth guide tube helps in circulation of fabric.

The vigorous agitation of fabric and dye formulation in the cloth increases the dyeing rate and uniformity. It minimizes creasing as the fabric is not held in any one configuration for very long.  The lower liquor ration allows shorter dye cycles and saves chemicals and energy.

In soft flow dyeing machines the fabric is transported by a stream of dye liquor. However, the transport is 
assisted by a driven lifter reel.

These machines use a jet having lower velocity that that used on conventional jet dyeing machines.

The soft flow machines are more gentle on the fabric than conventional jet machines.

The following are the features of a soft flow U-Type dyeing machine offered by Taxfab:

1. Machine pressure vessel and major wet parts made of stainless steel AISI 316/ 316 L, highly corrosion resistance material.

2. Heavy duty stainless steel centrifugal pump for optional dye liquor circulation. Highly efficient heat exchanger for fast heating and cooling. 

3.  A stainless steel filtering device placed in such a way for easy cleaning. 

4.   A unique design of jet nozzle can provide high discharge of liquore with subsequent pressure to ensure fast movement of fabric transport upto 300 Mtrs / Min., and the speed of fabric can be adjusted, required to desire quality. 

5. A mirror polished fabric transport perforated basket for easy trouble free movement of fabric from back to the front of machine, perforated basket fabricated in such a way that welding part does not come in contact with fabric.

6. For preparing chemical, colour kitchen tank is provided made out of stainless steel 316, with required valves for auto dozing. 

7. All valves is made of investment casting and is of stainless steel 3l6.

8.Electrical control panel with microprocessor to operate the machine is provided with pneumatic control circuits.

9. Magnetic level indicator duly calibrated for correct liquor measurement. 

10.       Take off reel with direct couple geared motor and stainless steel structure 

11. All safety device required for a pressure vessel is incorporated with the machine.

A front view and side of the machine offered by them is as given below:

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Tuesday 6 April 2010

Textile Testing for a Home Linen Product

Textile Testing is not something that is to be done on a finished product alone. There is a need to measure the effectiveness of each process so that necessary corrections can be done if needed. As an example, for a home linen fabric, the following testing procedures need to be carried out after every process.

Process of Manufacturing a Home-Linen Product

A typical home linen product is manufactured by the following process

Grey Fabric à Singeing and Desizing à Continuous Bleaching à Chainless Mercerisation à Continuous Dyeing range including Pad Dry and Pad Steam à Auto Jiggers with 20 cylinder drying range and open Stenterà Flat Bed Printingà Rotary Printing machine including loop stenter and polymeriser à stenterà Compressive Shrinkageà Calendering à Stitchingà Folding & Packing and Dispatch

The Following Testing procedures are needed at each stage of the process:

1.       Grey inspection and checking

Every supply of grey cloth needs a thorough check for quality of the material. The following checks need to be made

Checking of damage made during the transit
Checking of quantity supplied
Checking of count, reed and pick
Checking of GSM of the cloth
Checking of width of the grey
Checking of knots in every meter of grey
Checking of any deformity of construction of grey
Checking of any unusual cuts in the cloth

2.       Singeing and Scouring

After passing through the Singeing and Scouring process, the fabric undergoes the pilling test to determine the pilling and fuzzing characteristics of the fabric. Thereafter another test is conducted to determine the abrasion and pilling resistance of the fabric. If thesample fails this test as per specifications provided by the buyer then the grey cloth is sent back for Singeing.

3.       Desizing

De-sizing is the next step after which the TEGAWA test is conducted in a lab to check the presence of starch and other substances in the grey cloth and in the event the material fails this test then it is required to undergo the process of De-sizing.

4.       Bleaching

The absorbency test, whiteness test and ph testing are carried out in the lab after completion of the processes of bleaching, washing and drying.

5.       Mercerisation

Subsequent to the Mercerizing process the fabric undergoes ph testing and TWEDDEL and Barium tests to check the concentration of caustic in the fabric. The operation is repeated in case the fabric fails the tests.

6.       Dyeing

Post completion of the dyeing process, a number of tests are carried out to test the colour matching of the sample as per the buyer’s demand and colour fasteness of the cloth. The dyeing process has to be repeated in the event the fabric fails these tests.

7.       Printing

After completion of printing on the fabric, the tests relating to colour matching and fastness are carried out once again.

8.       Stenting

Once the Stenting process is completed, lab tests are conducted for carrying out the shrinkage tests, tensile strengths and tear strengths of the fabric.

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Thursday 1 April 2010

Common Knit Fabrics

What are commonly Used Knit Fabrics: An answer to this can be found in the following table and the description given below it:

100% Cotton40s CombedSingle-Jersey100-120
100% Cotton36s CombedSingle-Jersey110-130
100% Cotton30s CombedSingle-Jersey140-155
100% Cotton26s CombedSingle-Jersey160-170
100% Cotton24s CombedSingle-Jersey165-180
100% Cotton20s CombedSingle-Jersey180-200
100% Cotton18s CombedSingle-Jersey210-230
100% Cotton16s CombedSingle-Jersey230-250
100% Cotton40s CombedSlub-Jersey100-120
100% Cotton36s CombedSlub-Jersey110-130
100% Cotton30s CombedSlub-Jersey140-155
100% Cotton26s CombedSlub-Jersey160-170
100% Cotton24s CombedSlub-Jersey165-180
100% Cotton20s CombedSlub-Jersey180-200
100% Cotton18s CombedSlub-Jersey210-230
100% Cotton16s CombedSlub-Jersey230-250
95/5 Cotton/Spandex40s Combed + 20-DanierSingle-Jersey160-180
95/5 Cotton/Spandex32s Combed + 20-DanierSingle-Jersey190-200
95/5 Cotton/Spandex30s Combed + 20-DanierSingle-Jersey200-210
95/5 Cotton/Spandex30s Combed + 30-DanierSingle-Jersey220-230
100% Cotton30s CombedPique180-190
100% Cotton26s CombedPique190-200
100% Cotton24s CombedPique200-220
100% Cotton20s CombedPique210-240
100% Cotton18s CombedPique240-250
100% Cotton16s CombedPique260-280
95/5 Cotton/Spandex40s Combed + 40-DanierPique180-200
95/5 Cotton/Spandex30s Combed + 40-DanierPique240-250
100% Cotton40s Combed1X1 Rib140-160
100% Cotton30s Combed1X1 Rib180-200
100% Cotton26s Combed1X1 Rib210-220
100% Cotton24s Combed1X1 Rib220-240
100% Cotton20s Combed1X1 Rib250-270
100% Cotton16s Combed1X1 Rib300-340
97/3 Cotton/Spandex30s Combed + 30-Danier1X1 Rib220-240
97/3 Cotton/Spandex30s Combed + 40-Danier1X1 Rib230-250
97/3 Cotton/Spandex26s Combed + 40-Danier1X1 Rib260-280
97/3 Cotton/Spandex20s Combed + 40-Danier1X1 Rib300-330
100% Cotton40s Combed2X2 Rib140-160
100% Cotton30s Combed2X2 Rib180-200
100% Cotton26s Combed2X2 Rib210-220
100% Cotton24s Combed2X2 Rib220-240
100% Cotton20s Combed2X2 Rib250-270
100% Cotton16s Combed2X2 Rib300-340
97/3 Cotton/Spandex30s Combed + 30-Danier2X2 Rib220-240
97/3 Cotton/Spandex30s Combed + 40-Danier2X2 Rib230-250
97/3 Cotton/Spandex26s Combed + 40-Danier2X2 Rib260-280
97/3 Cotton/Spandex20s Combed + 40-Danier2X2 Rib300-330
97/3 Cotton/Spandex40s Combed + 40-Danier2X2 Rib180-200
97/3 Cotton/Spandex30s Combed + 40-Danier2X2 Rib210-220
97/3 Cotton/Spandex26s Combed + 40-Danier2X2 Rib220-240
97/3 Cotton/Spandex20s Combed + 40-Danier2X2 Rib250-270
100% Cotton40s CombedInterlock180-200
100% Cotton30s CombedInterlock220-240
100% Cotton26s CombedInterlock240-260
100% Cotton24s CombedInterlock270-280
100% Cotton20s CombedInterlock300-320
100% Cotton16s CombedInterlock330-350
100% Cotton40s CombedBrushed Back Terry160-170
100% Cotton30s CombedBrushed Back Terry180-200
100% Cotton26s CombedBrushed Back Terry200-210
100% Cotton24s CombedBrushed Back Terry220-230
100% Cotton20s CombedBrushed Back Terry240-260
100% Cotton16s CombedBrushed Back Terry280-290
95/5 Cotton/Spandex40s CombedBrushed Back Terry180-200
95/5 Cotton/Spandex30s CombedBrushed Back Terry210-220
95/5 Cotton/Spandex26s CombedBrushed Back Terry220-240
95/5 Cotton/Spandex24s CombedBrushed Back Terry250-270
95/5 Cotton/Spandex20s CombedBrushed Back Terry280-300
95/5 Cotton/Spandex16s CombedBrushed Back Terry310-330
100% Cotton40s CombedLoop Back Terry160-170
100% Cotton30s CombedLoop Back Terry180-200
100% Cotton26s CombedLoop Back Terry200-210
100% Cotton24s CombedLoop Back Terry220-230
100% Cotton20s CombedLoop Back Terry240-260
100% Cotton16s CombedLoop Back Terry280-290
95/5 Cotton/Spandex40s CombedLoop Back Terry180-200
95/5 Cotton/Spandex30s CombedLoop Back Terry230-250
95/5 Cotton/Spandex26s CombedLoop Back Terry260-270
95/5 Cotton/Spandex24s CombedLoop Back Terry280-300
95/5 Cotton/Spandex20s CombedLoop Back Terry300
95/5 Cotton/Spandex40s+40s Combed + 20-DanierFrench-Terry180-200
95/5 Cotton/Spandex30s+30s Combed + 20-DanierFrench-Terry240-260
80/20 Cotton/Poly30s+30s Combed + 10s PC3-Fleece300-340
80/20 Cotton/Poly30s+30s Combed + 10s PC3-Fleece280-300
80/20 Cotton/Poly20s Combed + 10s PC2-Fleece260-300
100% Cotton40s CombedWaffle140-160
100% Cotton30s CombedWaffle180-200
100% Cotton26s CombedWaffle210-220
100% Cotton24s CombedWaffle220-240
100% Cotton20s CombedWaffle250-270
100% Cotton16s CombedWaffle300-340
100% Cotton40s CombedThermal140-160
100% Cotton30s CombedThermal180-200
100% Cotton26s CombedThermal210-220
100% Cotton24s CombedThermal220-240
100% Cotton20s CombedThermal250-270
100% Cotton16s CombedThermal300-340

How to Identify a Jersey, Rib and Interlock Fabric

A very easy to understand identify the three is given here.

See an example of Brushed Back Terry here
See an example of French Terry here
See an example of Waffle Knit here
See an example of Thermal Knit Here

What is 3-Fleece and 2-Fleece

Three end and two end, course cut (10 to 14), knitting techniques are conventionally used to produce knitted fleece with low stitch densities (600-700). Fabric with a higher stitch density is generally perceived to be a higher quality fabric because it has a lower shrinkage rate and a more stable print platform.

The term "stitch density" is frequently used in knitting instead of a linear measurement of courses and wales, it is the total number of needle loops in a square area measurement such as square inch. It is obtained by multiplying the number of courses per inch by the number of wales per inch. Stitch density tends to be a more accurate measurement because tension acting in one direction in the fabric may, for example, produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales, which when multiplied together cancel the effect out.

Two end, course cut knitting techniques are generally used to produce knitted fleece fabric with lower stitch density, which is generally perceived to be low quality fabric. Two end knitted fleece fabric constructions are typically less costly to produce compared to three end knitted fleece fabric constructions because of lower yarn material costs.

Both three end and two end course cut knitting techniques can be used to produce knitted fleece fabric having the same fabric weight and the same stitch density. However, because three end knitting uses three yarn ends, as opposed to two yarn ends used by two end knitting, a yarn having a finer yarn count, which is significantly more expensive, is necessary to produce knitted fleece fabric with the same fabric weight and same stitch density. Thus, it is much more costly to produce knitted fleece fabric of a given weight and stitch density using a three end knitting technique. See a patent based on this information here.

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