Sunday, 26 July 2009

Denim Produced from Your Torn Jeans

There is a patent document which claims that the denim fabric can be produced from waste denim yarn. In this fabric 40%-100% of waste fiber is used. To reclaim the waste fiber, the fabric is subjected to garnetting and low tension carding, before spinning it in the form of yarn and using it to weave fabric.

The only thing remains to be seen is the techno-commercial viability of such product. Garnetted fibers produce problems in carding, drawframe and posisbly in high speed weaving. Though it is claimed that such a denim will have adequate strength, it will remain a challange. It is suggested that some virgin fiber should be added in the garnetted fiber or it is subjected to some lubrication before spinning. All this will lead to increase in process cost.

Neverthless, this is a good news for your torn denim jeans which can now be recycled into a new one without damaging the environment. Just give your jeans to the local rag picker and it will eventually find itself into a new jeans. However, if you don't want to part away with your jeans, here are the instructions what you can do with them. Of course, there are 25 other ways to make use of your old jeans.

Worldwise, concerns are growing reagarding using the denim waste. A project making the use of denim shoddy is one of such cases. It is being used in myriad ways including its use in oil filters. Successful attempts have been made to make paper out of denim wastes.

Note: Garnetting is a process by which material such as threads, rags, woven cloth scraps, and the like are broken up and returned to a substantial fluffy, fibrous condition simulating the original condition of the fiber. This is done by first chopping the material to small pieces (e.g. two to six inches) and then running the pieces through a series of high speed cylinders which can be covered with wire (e.g. saw wire), steel spikes, or the like. The treatment breaks up the material into individual fibers typically having a length of one and one-eighth inches or less.

Saturday, 25 July 2009

How to Buy Fabric for the Garments

An excellent guide on how to buy fabrics for the garments is given here. All the essential questions regarding what, why, where, how and who of fabric buying are explained in this guide.

Openings In Textiles / Garments / Export / Home Furnishing Companies : Delhi / NCR

Designation :
1. Production Manager (Home Furnishing Division)
Location: Gurgaon
Job Description -

--> Involvement in the production activities and assuring the styling & potential quality.
--> Responsible for performance of fabric, trims and accessories.
--> Setting targets at different areas of Analysis and decision making.
--> Production and working with production team to achieve the same.
--> Anticipating problems during processing and guiding to take preventive / corrective action.
--> Ensure the flow of materials between or within departments.
--> Compile Planning and monitoring of and record consumption of raw materials.
--> Conducting daily /weekly reviews production activities on daily basis at floor level and performance review on weekly basis along with production team and top management.
--> Communicating with departments as necessary throughout the manufacturing process to check production, troubleshoot, ensure quality and meet established deadlines.
--> Interacting with the Customers at different stages of production & shipment.
Remuneration - Rupees 4,00,000 to Rupees 5,50,000 (per annum) + Allowances + Company benefits
2. Finishing Manager (Home Furnishing Division)
Location: Gurgaon
Job Description -

--> Handling Finishing & Packing unit.
--> Authorized to washing process and washing approvals.
--> Involve in inspection for internal and buying agency.
--> Reporting to Factory Manager
Remuneration - Rupees 4,00,000 to Rupees 5,50,000 (per annum) + Allowances + Company benefits
3. Merchant / Sr. Merchant (Knits/Woven)
Location: Gurgaon
-> Look at the technical aspects of garments before a style goes into sampling
-> Evaluation of fits, protos, PP sample and shipment sample.& getting the pilot, initial, midline, inspection
-> Meeting with the production team to improve quality control procedures.
-> Monitoring per day production status according T. &. A.
Remuneration - Rupees 3,00,000 to Rupees 4,00,000 (per annum) + Allowances + Company benefits

4. Fabric Executive / Manager
Location : Gurgaon
--> Negotiation with the buyers and suppliers of fabrics to help in finalizing the orders.
--> Independent communication with the Customers & Buying houses.
--> Coordinating with them to get complete satisfaction for the fabrics, there quality, testing parameters, meets legal requirement as per country norms.
--> Sourcing of the new fabrics according to the Buyer as per requirements & take care for there developments from the right place.
--> Liasoning the right vendors to place the order.
--> Testing and sampling of all fabrics as per buyer requirement.
--> Coordinating with the suppliers to improve properties in product to meet buyer needs
Remuneration - Rupees 3,00,000 to Rupees 4,00,000 (per annum) + Allowances + Company benefits

Mail your CV to
Dipen Roy
Wills Worth Consulting New Delhi
Disclaimer: The responsibility of checking the authenticity of offers/correspondence lies with you.

Friday, 24 July 2009

Careers in Media and Entertainment Industry

I remember my days when after doing my graduation in Textile Technology I was thinking of joining a textile company. There was no viable alternative possible for a textile engineer like me. However, technology has changed the nature of the game.

Media and Entertainment has emerged out to be one such sector that is independent of one's background. It also has the potential to fill in the creative void in an individual that emerges due to study of a relatively drab subject such as textile technology.

Prima facie, there is no dearth of jobs in media and entertainment industry. Jobsites suggest that there is also a high growth rate in such jobs. This is particularly important in a recession hit economy where other jobs are getting relatively scarce.

A conference is taking place on Saturday, July 25, 2009 at Chelmsford Club, #1,Krishi Bhawan, Raisina Road, New Delhi H.O.Delhi 110001, organized by 9.9 School of Convergence. The objective of the conference is to bring together the topshots in media and entertainment industry to discuss about the job opportunities created in this sector, among other related issues.

The keynote speakers will include Karan Makhija, Film Actor, Jaane Tu Jaane Na and 9.9 SoC alumni, Ranabir Majumdar,, ESPN Star and 9.9SoC alumni and Dr. Pramath Raj Sinha, Dean, 9.9 SoC , CEO 9.9 Mediaworx, Founding Dean ISB.

I recommend the readers to attend the conference and give their valuable feedbacks.

12 things to Ensure While Marking Master in Garment Manufacturing

12 things to Ensure While Marking Master in Garment Manufacturing

1. Do it only on the selected marking material

2. Ensure Number of patterns necessary for each style to make a complete garment.

3. Ensure facing of the patterns ( faceup, down, lateral, longitudinal) to facilitate cutting in design direction. Provide identification mark with respect to spread type eg. "FU" for face up, "FD" for face down and "FF" for face to face.

4. Determine the grain marking on pattern such as straight, cross and mixed.

5. Note the warp (straight), weft (cross) and bias grain dimension of each pattern.

6. Ensure that the grain alignment on the marker is within the graining tolerances as specified on the pattern.

7. Mark the pattern wholse widths sum up to equal the fabric width shall be marked in parallel formation across the width.

8. Achive maximum interlock efficiency of patterns with tapered width by inverting the alternate pattern depending on the fabric design.

9. Avoid crowding of interlocking angles and curves which restrict the cutters ability to cut the pattern section with precision.

10. Provide sufficient knife clearance for manipulation of cutting machine at interlocking curves and angles.

11. Draw lines with precision ( line value to facilitate cutting)

12. Mark each pattern section with its size, style and pattern title/number.

Weekly Website Review- Dyeman

"There are no bad dyes - only bad dyers" is the punch-line of Batik Oetoro , who are suppliers of textile materials, service and know-how to the artists.

The website is well structured and brimming with information.

Click on dyes and you get to see a colorful assortment of dyes. Move down and you will find the dyeing instructions for that class of dyes. There is also a dye receipe for hand painting of the fabrics. Also dyeing instructions for all possible applications are given. For example the following techniques are explained for acid dyes:

1.Dip dyeing
2.Hand painting - chemical water fixation
3.Hand painting - Drimafix fixation
4.Tie dyeing
5.4 Minutes rapid fixation method
6.Polychromatic printing

Under "Fabric Decorating", some marvellous techniques using dyes such as Devore and Marbelling are given.

Though the site was last updated in 2008, you can get an idea about the cost comparison of the different classes of dyes.

There is also an automatic calculator which convert virtually every weight and volume measurement into teaspoons.
I really love their most comprehensive instructions on natural dyes .
They also have instructions for dyeing silk/viscose blend.
For the curious, they have a list of common names used for chemicals .
For the beginner a summary of dyes is given.
Of course, they have a glossary of terms .

Wednesday, 22 July 2009

Terry Towel Calculations-2

Continued from Terry Towel Calculations-1

How to Determine the Weight of Pile Warp in Terry Towel

Weight of Pile Warp = weight of pile warp in pile part + that in plain part + that in fringe

a. Weight of pile warp in pile part ( Pile ratio: 52:10)
=( Length of pile part x number of pile threads x pile length x yarn count in tex) / (100 x 1000)
= (102 x 576 x 52 x 30 x 2)/(100 x 1000)
= 183.31 g

b. Weight of Pile warp in Plain Part
=( Length of plain fabric x number of pile threads x crimp factor x yarn count)/ (100 x 1000)
= (4 x 576 x 1.08 x 30 x 2)/(100 x 1000)
= 1.49 g

c. Weight of Pile warp in fringe ( No crimp , no loop )
= (fringe length x number of pile threads x yarn count)/(100 x 1000)
= (2 x 576 x 30 x 2)/(100 x 1000)
= 0.69 g
Weight of pile warp = 183.31+ 1.49 + 0.69 = 185.49

How to Determine the Weight of Weft in Terry Towel

Weight of Weft Yarn

= (Total no of weft threads x reed width x yarn count)/(100 x 1000)
(Reed width is equal to the length of one weft yarn)
= (106 x 20 x 58.4 x 34)/(100 x 1000)
= 42.09 g

Tuesday, 21 July 2009

Terry Towel Calculations-1


Number of Ground Warp Ends = 694
Ground Warp Count = 25 tex x 2
Warp Crimp = 8%
Weft Yarn count = 34 tex
Number of Pile Warp Ends = 576
Length of pile part = 102 cm
Pile Ratio (for pile height)= 52:10 (52 cm of pile warp for 10 cm of cloth)
Pile Yarn count = 30 tex x 2
Length of plain part = 4 cm
Picks per cm = 20
Reed Width = 58.4 cm
Grey Length ( Pile and Plain Part) = 106 cm
Fringe Length = 2 cm

How to Determine the Weight of a ground Warp for Terry Towel

Weight of Ground Warp = Weight of ground warp in grey cloth + weight of ground warp in the fringe.

Weight of ground warp in grey cloth = (length of grey cloth x warp crimp factor x no of ground warp threads x warp yarn count in tex )/ (100 x 1000)
= (106 x 1.08 x 694 x 25 x 2)/(100 x 1000)
= 397.25 gms

Weight of Ground Warp in Fringe (here the warp crimp is not involved) = (Fringe length x no of ground warp x yarn count in tex)/ (100x 1000)
= (2 x 694 x 25 x 2)/ (100 x 1000) = 0.69 gms

So Ground Warp Weight = 397.25 +.69 = 397.94 grams.

Continued in Terry Calculations-2

Loom Temples


The warp sheet normally contracts from 2 to 15 percent in width from reed to the cloth. This contraction is due to interlacement of warp and weft.

This contraction need to be avoided temporarily because otherwise:

1. There is a possiblity of damage to the warp ends near the selvedge due to abrasion with reed dents.

2. There is a possibility of reed dents getting themselves distorted.

3. There will always be a tension in the beat-up zone.

The temples are used to hold fast the width of the woven cloth as equal to as possible to the width of the warp.

Types of Temples

1. Ring Temples

In ring temples the rings are usually at an angle of 12 deg to 21 deg and the angle reduces in steps of 3 deg towards the centre of the cloth.

As a thumb rule the lenght of the pints should be about one and a half times to two times the cloth thickness. The pins exert their pull on the warp.

Also the greater the tube diameter the greater the wrap of the cloth on the temple tube.

The length of the temple tube depends upon the cloth width. A rule of thumb is one ring for 10 cm fabric.

For delicate cloth, pinned rings are used only in the cloth selvedge zone. The inner rings are substituted by textured surface rubber, plastic or bras rings.

2. Roller Temples

The roller temples usually have two rollers supported at both ends which guide the fabric in the warp directions by means of raised points. The rollers are usually of steel and are covered with rubber or plastics.

Ring and roller temples hold the fabric in the selvedge zones only and stretches the fabric outwards.

These temples have the disadvantage that the pressure of the beat-up of the reed against the fabric is transmitted to the next guiding point of the fabric, which is the breast beam. This point is several inches from the fell of the cloth and therefore extensive tension is required for the beat-up. The tension causes breakages of the warp yarns.

Another disadvantage of this group of temples is the presence of different lengths of the fabric from the fell of the cloth to the breast beam, caused by the looping of the fabric around the temple cylinders. This causes a deformation of the straightness of the weft and therefore of the design. In extreme cases it creates waviness of the selvedges.

3. Full Width Temples

The other group consists of full-width temples.

The full width temples hold the fabric across its full width under uniform tension. The advantages of using full width temples are that weaving can be done at lower warp tension. One more advantage is less stress for the ends, resulting in less ends breakage.There are no temple ring marks. A higher weft density is possible. There is a straight weft insertion over the whole width. Also less maintenance is required.

However the full-width temples cannot avoid a contraction of the fabrics weft wise. By reason of this contraction, the warp ends in the selvedges do not pass at straight angle through the weaving reed. This causes extensive friction between yarn and reed and can lead yarn breakages.

Saturday, 18 July 2009

Denim Silk- Challenges in Production and Marketing

Silk denim, developed in India by CSTRI seems to have a lot of potential. With the market of denim in India growing by leaps and bounds, denim silk will give that niche in the minds of customer that can make a company profitable.

There are however lots of challenges that denim jeans made of silk will face in the market. First there is a problem/question of its production viability. Then there will be a question of its wearing performace.

Then of course care of this fabric will be a major challange. Even if this is overcome, cost will be a deciding factor in this recession hit economy. And of course, there will be always a challenge to fight from the spurious fabrics.

Lets talk about parameters. The warp in silk is made from 20/22 denier 6 and 12 ply organzine twisted(Organzine is a thread made by giving the raw-silk thread a preliminary twist in one direction and then twisting many of these threads together in the opposite direction at the rate of about 4 turns/cm ) mulberry silk fiber or eri silk of 2/60s, 2/80s and 2/120s is used. In weft 6 and 12 ply tram twisted (Tram is made by twisting in only one direction two or more raw-silk threads, with 8 to 12 turns/cm). Mulberry silk and eri silk of 2/60s, 2/80s and 2/12s greige yarn is used. All this is OK, the only concern is the avaliability of these fibers. It is then made on rapier looms with 44" width and 3/1 twill weighing 100-300 gsm. The only questions are the production challenges while handling such delicate fibers.

Functionally, twill weaves in silk are prone to slippage of yarn, particulary if two different fibers are used in warp and weft.which might affect the tear strength and seam slippage.

Also the faded look of denim comes from Indigo dye, which is a vat dye, and which is faded differentially as the denim is washed. In Silk Denim, Indigo colored acid dyes are used, which dont fade at all. This will maintain the consistency of shade for years, but surely will take away the joy of fading that is obtained with cotton denim.

Then of course there are issues for the care and maintainenace of these fabrics. These must be dry cleaned and taken care of properly. Also eri silk denim will behave like wool and more suitable in winter.

The biggest issue of all is the cost. Due to limited supply, the quality silk denim would be much much costlier than the normal indigo cotton denim.

Thus all the discussion above will point out to the a very specific market for silk denims. Target audience would be upper class young females in the age group of 25-40. It would be better if the bottoms were to sold with the matching printed or plain silk tops. It would be further beneficial for a marketer if the word 'denim' is taken out of this fabric, as customer will erroneously compare the properties of indigo denim with this fabric. Some surface emballishments can be done like printing or embroidery on these garments.

And then have a look at this.

Friday, 17 July 2009

News about Silk from India

Banarasi Saree to Receive GI registration

The Banaras Bunkar Samiti, an organisation of Banarasi handloom weavers and eight other organisations are making efforts to receive the IPR to the silk brocade and Banarasi saree.
The GI acts as a certification that the product possesses certain qualities, or enjoys a certain reputation, due to its geographical origin.

Banana Shirts

Weavers of Anakaputhur, about 20 kms from Chennai have brought in this new product with technical support from the National Research Centre for Banana ( NRCB) Trichi.
At Rs. 450 a piece, such shirts keep the body cool. Banana fiber after processing, is odorless and can be dyed in any color. The shirts don't shrink, fade and keep the stiffness even without starch. However, a blend of 60% cotton with this fiber given maximum durability. Banana fiber is also cost effective with 40/- a kg and can yield two 100% banana shirts.
Other suppliers of banana fiber can be found here.

Monday, 13 July 2009

16 Things to ensure while Making Industrial Apparel Patterns

The following is a list of 16 things to ensure while making an industrial apparel pattern manually:

  1. All the features of the style
  2. Pattern count ( Number of pattern sections) according to the style 
  3. Seam allowance based on style
  4. Type of fixtures required on sewing machine in the manufacturing
  5. Final drafting measurements based on the shrinkage value ( both warp and weft way) for garmens which are subject to further treatment such as washing or dyeing.
  6. Grading the pattern based on the size specification.
  7. Marking the grain lines by an arrow head.
  8. Provide guide notcher for precision assembly, punch holes for positioning of components and darts.  
  9. Use of white hard board paper for drafting.
  10. Use of black color for drawing the original draft line.
  11. Identify the pattern by its style number, customer's name, date of preparation and mention of its status as "sample"
  12. On preparation of the sample garment, place all the pattern sections in a paper bag mentioning pattern count, style number, customer's name 
  13. On receipt of customer's feed back on sample garment effect the changes, if any, by manipulating the draft with Blue color and endorse with signature and date.
  14. On approval from the production manager, change the status of patterns from "sample" to "production"
  15. On finalisation of drafting , prepare "ready patterns" on two tone paper for small components meant for cutting section, sewing section and for monitoring purpose.
  16. In order to prevent curling and chipping of the edges of the pattern section, protect the edges by metal foils.  

Sunday, 12 July 2009

Rapid Dyes

The Rapid dyes are stabilized dyestuffs specially prepared for printing.

 They are applied to the fibers in one operation.

 Bright full colors are obtained with very good fastness properties.

 These are used for printing backgrounds so that the foreground becomes prominent. Hence these are suitable where large areas of ground need to be colored.

 Rapid dyes are mixed with water and boiled with caustic soda and a gum paste. A receipe for rapid dyes is given here.

The shades in rapid dyes are unpredictable since the color that is mixed is different from the final color.

True colors emerge only after the fabric has been printed and washed in a mild sulphuric acid solution.

Also these dyes should be used on the same day.

Some colors such as pure blacks are extremely sensitive to weather. Similarly red colors in rapid is vibrant in summers and mediocre in winter

Saturday, 11 July 2009

Care of Rayon Fabrics

Rayon has a low wet strength. Thus the fabric may shrink or stretch when wet. Dry cleaning is recommended. When hand washing, do not wring, use towel to take out moisture and dry flat.

Some dyes used on rayon migrate to the surface, when moisture contacts them, they form a "ring" which are difficult to remove. Thus it makes sense to protect the garment from moisture.

Also when pressing, avoid spitting by steam irons. Press on wrong side or use a press cloth to protect shine or iron imprints.

Rayon fabrics stretches during regular use or drycleaning. This tendency is more common in fitted garments.

In full bias skirts or dresses, uneven hemlines may appear in rayon crepe fabrics in damp climates. This happens because rayon is less stable when wet.

Yellowing in the rayon fabrics may occur due to oxidation of starch present in the fabric. This problem is noticeable in white fabrics. Wet cleaning, accompanied by bleaching will correct the problem. However this treatment can cause additional damage due to shrinkage and limpness.

View a fact sheet on rayon by Joyee A Smith here.

Friday, 10 July 2009

Gad, Reikh and Datta Blocks- Block Printing

While looking for the definition of gad, rekh and datta blocks, I came across the following in website of Indianetzone" The gad, rekh and datta are three types of blocks that are distinguishable by their different styles of carving. The gad is carved in intaglio and is engaged to print large background figures, while rekh and datta are carved in complete relief. Rekh blocks also mark the outlines of the motif and are often used in conjunction with gad blocks, the rekh then forming the fine elaborate lines within the impression made by the gad block. Datta is carved in bold relief and complements the designs of both the gad and rekh blocks. Each of these blocks is used separately or together to produce endless design variations."

Now some terms were not clear to me. For example what is "....carved in intaglio.." means, on searching I found this website of carving patterns giving a beautiful definition and explanation, basically carving intaglio is "Intaglio carving uses the reverse technique to produce the image effect. Here, the main image is the negative areas of the work, instead of the background being carved away it is the design the you remove."

And what is " carved in.. relief" ? For this Wikipedia came to rescue: "Relief carving can be described as "carving pictures in wood". The process of relief carving involves removing wood from a flat wood panel in such a way that an object appears to rise out of the wood"

Major and Minor Defects in Garment Production-3

Small Parts
Major Defects
1. Rib Knit set crooked-off, grain holes or runs in knit.
2. Misshaped collars and cuffs
3. Misshaped Tabs
Major Defects
1. Zipper more than 3/8" from bottom.
2. Poorly set zipper causing closure problems.
3.Twisting of the zipper caused by the top stitching of the zipper front.
4. Poorly set zipper causing waviness in the front.
Minor Defects
1. Twisting of the zipper front caused by the top stitching of the zipper front.
2. Setting front ( or facing ) too close to the teeth so that the slider cannot properly function.
Major Defects

1. Button and button holes not set in proper positions or out of alignment.
2. Uncut buttonholes/ missing button/ snap fasteners/ buckles/ zippers etc.
3. Not set in proper position
4. Defective or rusted hardware
5. Hardware not according to the specification in size, color, shape.
6. Snap coming off tacks ( Bartacks)
7. Omitted or misplaced or rivet not servicing its intended purpose/improper length.
Minor Defects
1. Too few stitches in the buttonhole.
2. Buttonhole too large or too small for the button.
3. Button not securely sewn.

Thursday, 9 July 2009

Care of Silk Fabric

Silk should be dry-cleaned, in most of the cases. Whenever in doubt, dryclean it.

It should not be machine washed at all.

Silk Shrinks when washed in water. It doesn’t itself shrink. It is the way the individual fibers are twisted together than causes the silk to shrink. Highly twisted yarns and loose weave cause shrinking when water releases twisting energy in the fibers.

Water also affects the texture and sheen of the fabric. Thus the firmness and color of the fabric is also affected by water.

When hand washing do it in this way:

Always wash silk in soft water. Add a pinch of Borax or ammonia, if the water is hard.

1. Put the silk in a tub full of lukewarm water and mild soap like Ezee.

2. Rub the silk fabric for a few minutes in the solution and drain.

3. Rinse in clear cool water until all the soap is gone.

4. Fill the tub again and put about a quarter cup of white vinegar.

Vinegar neutralizes any remaining soap and allows it to rinse out completely restoring the fabric’s natural sheen. It also helps preventing any damage from the alkali present in the soap.

5. Give the fabric a final rinse in clear, cool water to restore the vinegar smell.

6. Roll up in a towel to remove moisture then dry flat on a towel. Never wring it.

7. Avoid soaking silk as this may fade the dye.

Silk with doubtful color fastness may be steeped in cold water with a small amount of citric or acetic acid for 1-2 minutes before washing.

Please test this method on a small part of the garment before commencing the full-fledged washing.

Treating Stains

1. Use a capful of hydrogen peroxide and a few drops of ammonia added to the wash.

2. For recent perspiration stain dab a tablespoon of ammonia dissolved in half cup of water. Older perspiration can be removed with a vinegar solution. Unfortunately, perspiration stains on silk may not be completely removable.


1. Silk should be pressed when damp never when completely dry.

2. Turn the item inside out and iron on the reverse side of the fabric.

3. Use a low setting and don’t use steam as it will leave watermarks.


1. Keep silk in a cotton pillowcase or other material that can breathe.

2. Avoid plastic which traps moisture and can cause yellowing and mildew

3. Use naphthalene balls to keep the bugs away from silk.

4. Avoid direct contact with wood

5. Wrap zari sarees in cotton cloth to avoid discoloring of zari.

General Care Instructions

1. Keep it away from heat or direct sunlight, it will yellow the fiber.

Wednesday, 8 July 2009

Cotton Vs. Linen

Comparison of Properties of Cotton and Linen 

Linen is Stronger

Linen is the strongest of the vegetable fibers and has 2 to 3 times the strength of cotton. Linen table cloths and napkins have been handed down generation to generation.

Linen is Smoother

Not only is the linen fiber strong, it is smooth, making the finished fabric lint free. Fine china, silver and candles are enhanced by the luster of linen which only gets softer and finer the more it is washed.

Wrinkles more easily than Cotton

Linen does wrinkle easily but also presses easily.However, constant creasing in the same place in sharp folds will tend to break the linen threads. This wear can show up in collars, hems, and any area that is iron creased during the laundering.

Not As Elastic

Linen has poor elasticity and does not spring back readily.

Touch is Different

Cotton is softer, fluffier, and warm to the touch. Linen is smooth, heavy and flowing, and feels cool because it absorbs moisture more readily than cotton.

Cotton is Easier to Rip

Since flax fibres are longer than cotton fibres, cotton is easier to rip.

Pure Linen Vs.Linen/Cotton Blend

Cotton/linen - a little softer, and won't wrinkle as much as pure linen.

For shirts, cotton/linen is great

Pure linen is not bad, necessarily, but it is stiffer and also hard to find in really light weights. The thickness of most pure linen does not lend itself to dress shirtings well.

For jackets and trousers, pure linen is better  

Tuesday, 7 July 2009

How to Dye Using Indian Natural Dyes

To Dye the Fabric with natural dyes, we proceed as follows:


1. Take 20% Harda powder on the weight of material.

2. Make into a smooth paste , add about 10 liters of water.

3. Soak the fabric in this bath for 10-15 minutes.

4. Work it well and dry.

5. After drying remove the extra unfixed harda powder by brushing.


1. Take about 200 gms of alum or 50 gms of Potassium Dichromate or 200 grams of copper sulphate accoding to the color desired.

2. Add 20 liters of water

3. Mix well

4. Enter the Harda Treated material into the dyebath and work well

5. Keep of 10-15 minutes

6. Squeeze and wash once in plain water to remove excess of mineral salt.


Please see the "Developing of Color" Section of the article "How to Print Using Indian Natural Dyes" .  

Monday, 6 July 2009

Major and Minor Defects in Garment Production-2

Assembly Defect

Major Defects

1. Finished Components not correct to size or shape or not symmetical

2. Finished garment not to size.

3. Measurements not within tolerance.

4. Parts, components, closures or features omitted ( i.e. Belt loop, snap or button)

5. Components or features wrongly positioned or misaligned

6. Interlining incorrectly positioned twisted, too full, too tight, cockling

7. Garment parts, cockling, pleated, twisted, showing bubbles and fullness.

8. Garment parts shaded or shading in fabric.

Minor Defects:

1. Loose Thread not removed

Saturday, 4 July 2009

Defects in Sulphur Dyeing

Defects in Sulphur Dyeing

1. Tendering

Tendering in the fabric takes place because sulphur is converted into sulphuric acid after oxidation which is harmful for the cellulosic fibers. This defect can occur on account of not proper washing of the fabric after dyeing which results in retaining of sulphuric acid on the cloth.

2. Uneven Dyeing and Oxidation Marks

This may occur due to:

a. Lower strength of sodium sulphide

b. Using improper amount of sodium sulphide.

c. Sodium sulphide does not wash off fully after washing.

d. Variation in temperature.

e. If colors are not dissolved properly, or colors are not of good quality

f. If the chemical used for oxidation is not of good quality

g. Fabrics are not worked upon properly at the time of dyeing.

3. Bronziness

This defect normally occurs in heavy shades. Given below are the reasons:

1. More time gap between dyeing and washing

2. Using more of less strength sodium sulphide

3. Using more salt.

4. Oxidiser doesn't get washed off properly during washing

5. Sodium sulphide doesn't get washed off properly during washing.

6. More presence of iron and copper ions in water.

4. Poor colorfastness to rubbing

It depends upon:

a. type of color
b. Lower strength of sodium sulphide
c. Poor absorbency of the fabric
d. Fabric is not washed properly
e. The quality of soap used for washing is not proper
f. Dyeing bath made of iron instead of steel
g. Frequent addition of colors and chemicals
h. Using Cationic finishing agent in finishing also lowers the colorfastness to rubbing
i. Improper color solution, Improper material to liquor ratio etc.

5. Roughness in Fabric

1. Using more amount of sodium sulphide that doesn't get washed off during washing.
2. Heavier shade
3. Improper washing
4. Not using anionic softening agent in finishing
5. Not using wetting agent.

Friday, 3 July 2009

How to Print Using Indian Natural Dyes

General Procedure

1. Tanning of Fabric with Myrabolan Powder

If myrobalan powder is taken

a. Take 200 gms of Myrobalan powder for 1 kg of fabric

b. Make a smooth paste with water, without any lumps

c. Add water till it becomes 5 liters.

d. Mix well

e. Soak the fabric in this

f. Work the fabric in this solution at room temperature for 15 to 20 minutes.

g. Squeeze the material and dry it in shade.

h. When dried, remove the unfixed material by striking it against wall.

2. Preparation of Thickening Agent

Using Tamarind Seed Powder

a. Add 100 gms of Tamarind seed powder in 1 liter of boiling wter.Sprinkle the powder in the boiling water stirring to avoid lumps.

b. Cook and mix till a fine paste is ready, cool it and filter the contents.

c. Remember that this paste is stable only for 2 to 3 days.


Take Bhagvathi gum, add 30 to 50 gms of powder for 1 liter of water. It is also soluble in cold water.

This paste has better stability

Avoid Gum Arabic.

3. Mordanting the Solution with Mineral Salts

Take the mineral salts according to the following formula:

x parts of mineral salts
15 to 20% boiling water
70% thickening agent
to make it 100%.

The following are the general guidelines for getting the dark shades.

Alum= 10%, available by the name of Fitkari
Potassium Dichromate= 5%, available as Lal Kashish
Copper Sulphate= 10%, available by the name of mor Thuth
Ferrous Sulphate= 1 to 5%, available by the name of Hira Kashish
Iron Solution = 50%

Iron solution is made by the following procedure:

a. Take 2 kg of Iron Pieces, 1 to 1.5 kg of Jaggery and add 20 liters of water.

b. Keep in a plastic container for 3-4 weeks

Tin Chloride= 0.5 to 1.0 %

The Procedure for making the paste is:

a. Ground the mineral salt into powder form.
b. Add water and boil.
c. When completely dissolved, add the thickening agent.

The paste is ready for the printing process

4. Printing

Now Print the fabric using blocks. Dry and wash as follows:

5. Washing

 When washing in river keep the printed portion face down so that it touches water. Wash for about 5 to 10 minutes, printed portion is not touched. Care should be taken that printed portion should not touch the unprinted portion.

After washing, dry in flat on the ground. Dont hang. Now the fabric is ready for developing.

6. Developing of Color

Fabric is developed using traditional material. For yellow ranges Pomegranate rind ( Anar ka Chilka) or Forest Yellow (Amba Haldi) 50% or Moduga flowers ( Desuda phool) are taken. For Pinks to reds maroons Alizarin(0.5% with 10-20% Dhavdi flowers added to dye bath), Mnajistha(25-50%) is taken, for grey ranges: Rathanjoth(30% to 50%), Ferrous Sulphate is taken, for brown range: catechu ( Katha) and its componets are taken.

 Powder the dye and mix and boil with water for 3-4 boils. Filter it. Make a dye bath with material to Liquor ratio of 1:20 at 50 deg C. Add the solution in it. Enter the fabric ( already mordanted ) in it. Work well and raise the temperature to boil. Dye for 30-40 minutes. Wash and soap. Dry in shade.

Major and Minor Defects in Garment Production-1

Some very good definitions of Major, Minor and Critical Defects can be found Here.

Major, Minor and critical Defects are the part of classification given to the flaws while inspecting the fabrics or garments.The classification depends upon the severity of the defect and forms a basis of acceptance or rejection of the lot.

Consideration in classifiying the defects as major or minor is taken on the basis of the affect on saleability of the garment, location of the defect and conspicuousness of the defect.

In this document , the location of the defect( the zone) is shown in various garments which make a defect serious or insignificant. There is also a comprihensive list of the critical defects.
An analysis of Fabric defects according to their severity as major or minor can be found in this document.

This document is in the form of a contract but it deals brilliantly with all the quality issues including the defects.

The Following is an indicative list that can be followed to ascertain if a defect is a minor or a major defect in a garment:

Seam and Stitching

Major Defects:

1. Stitch Requirements
a. Inside 8-10 SPI
b. topstitch 8.9 SPI
c. Other requirement as specified

2. Seam grain
3. Thread breaks
4. Feed damage
5. Excessive amount on skip stitches ( 2 or more)
6. Pleat in seam (other than required by style)
7. Poorly repaired seams
8. Broken stitches two or more if conspicuous.
9. Conspicuous needle damage hole.
10. Open seam raw edges or frayed materials
11. Uneven stitch density, staggered stitch
12. Too many stitches giving rise to jumping and rupture of fabrics and few to grinning and weak seams
13. Wrong stitch density
14. Run off stitch.
15. Omitted sewing i.e. top stitch, button hole, snap, velcro etc.
16. Serious, uneven edge of seam ie bottom of waistband, right to left seam matching, pocket mouth etc.
17. Double stitching and poorly repairs affecting the appearance and service.
18. Improperly formed stitch or loose tension of stitches causing loops on surface easily pulled out.
19. Stitch tension which breaks under normal stress.
20. Wrong colour match thread
21. Napped fabric-cut or sewing in the wrong direction or mixed in the garment causing shading.
22. Wrong seam type or stitch type used
23. Blind stitching showing on the face side.
24. Reverse garment parts.
25. Extraneous part caught in seam.
26. Mismatched seam.
27. Mismatched checks or stripes
28. Any twisted, loosen, tighten, puckered or pleated or overlapped seam.
29. Irregular or incorrect shape of sewing line "run-offs"
30. Incorrect or uneven width of inlay i.e. seams burst open, raw edges show slippage of weave threads.

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