All these are the elements which are used in Zardozi Embroidery. The basic element is the plain metal wire. The
plain wire is called badla, prepared from a flattened wire which is laid
on surface of the fabric, and when wound round a thread, it is called kasab.
Smaller spangles with
hole in centre are called sitara,
and tiny dots made of badla are called mukaish.
Sequins or Sitara
Tilla is the flat wire which cannot be threaded
and is stitched directly on to the material. Salmais very
fine, soft unflattened wire wound spirally without a thread in the centre.
Dabkais a light weight coiled wire which is soft, flexible, and
light both in weight and colour.
A heavier form of dabka known as kora.
Nakshiis a flat metal wire coiled in angular way
similar to dabka except that it is
A round zari with a hole
in the centre is called is called chakri. Gijaiis circular thin stiff wire.
Embroidery that uses
pure gold and silver wire and zari is known as Zardozi. This work is also
known as karchobi. Zardozi
involves the use of gold threads, spangles, beads, seed pearls, wire, gota and
kinari. The original
embroidery of Zardozi was done with pure silver
wires coated with real gold, and was known as Kalabatun.
Techniques of Zardozi Work
there are two broad techniques of Zardozi
work. These are karchobi and kamdani. Karchobi is done for heavy fabrics and furnishings eg. tent, hangings, cover, spreads, trappings, umbrella, parasols etc. The
fabric is generally velvet or heavy satin with lining support underneath. The
Kamdani technique on the other hand is more magnificently practiced on finer
fabrics such as muslin, silk etc. which were more suitable for costumes and related
accessories such as caps, veils, scarves, caps, bonnets, shoes, belts, purses, fans,
Zardozi than other stitches
Zardozi differs from other traditions of embroidery like Kantha, Phulkari, Kasuti
etc. where the movement of threaded needle is guided by variety of stitches. In other
embroideries silk, cotton or woollen thread are used, which are binding medium,
whereas in zardozi, the body of the design is completed by laying varieties of metallic threads in
several shapes and forms along with beads, stones , beetle wings, etc. The whole
process is more indicative of appliqué, then embroidery. Thus it may be called metal
appliqué. One can understand this from the fact that zardoz always get payments for amount
of wire stitched on the cloth by weight. They never use the word kadai, the
hindi word for embroidery, instead refer to it as salme sitare ka kaam ka takna which
means laying salma, sitara on the body of the fabric.
Zardozi and Aari are two classifications with a
slight difference in needle holding. Zardozi is
embroidered with simple hand needle thus involving more effort, while for the aari the
needle is fixed in a stick, which makes the hole in the fabric and thread, can be
pulled both ways.
Zaminduzi and Gulduzi
When the embroidery
completely covered the fabric the work is known as Zaminduzi or if single
motifs were scattered across it was known is gulduzi.
The stitches used in Zardozi are laid-stitch,
couching, stem stitch, running stitch and satin stitch.
Raised effect is given in Zardozi by
padding in soft thick cotton thread and cardboard
Average income of Artisans
Zardozi- 10000 Rs.
per month- 10/12 Hours per day- Monthly wage
of Zardozi Embroidery
are the steps in doing the embroidery:
Firstly the design is traced on to the tracing paper and then the design is perforated
with the needle all over on the design. The fabric on which the embroidery is to
be done is placed on a flat table and the tracing sheet is placed in position.
of kerosene and Robin Blue/zinc oxide is made. A wad of cloth is dipped into
this solution and wiped against the tracing so that the ink seeps through the