Tuesday, 12 August 2008
Introduction to textile sizing
Necessity of Warp Sizing
During the weaving process, the yarns are subjected to three basic physical stresses. These are stretch, strain and abrasion. Although these forces exist in varyiing proportions depending upon the type of loom and the fabric styling,all three are forces that must be considered in all cases.Therefore, the ideal sizing material would produce a smooth, tough, elastic film which would adhere to the yarn. It should smooth to friction and abrasion. It should be tough to endure the load or strain and it should be elastic to allow flexibility and sufficient stretch.
Advantage of using Polyvinyl Alcohol in Warp Sizing
PVA is an excellent film provider. Its tough film is easily removed (desized) with hot water. It leads to the following benefits:
-Superior Abrasion resistance
- Adhesion to synthetic fibres
- user friendly slashing performance.
Yarn sized with PVA can run at lower add-on because of the adhesion and strength advantage PVA provides over natural binders. It requires in quantity only 1/3 rd of the starch.
The excellent abrasion resistance means less shedding on the slasher and in the weave room.
The inherent flexibility of films of PVA resins eliminates the need for high Relative humidity in the weave room. A RH of 65-75% are recommended
PVA solutions are thermally stable and can be maintained for lower periods of time at high temperature.
PVA are widely reclaimed and reused for sizing, thus reducing effluent levels from the finishing plant.
PVA and wax together will provide the optimal size performance. Wax is needed to reduce dryer can sticking, weaker film for easier split, minimize clinging on looms and improved lubrication for the size coating. However, excessive use of waxes can lead to poor adhesion, brittleness, roughness and decreased abrasion resistance. Also waxes can be difficult to remove at desizing stage which can lead to quality problems in desized fabrics. It is important to select a wax that contains an effective emulsifier. It will act to prevent wax from redepositing back on the fabric during desizing. Common wax is tallow.
Starch is primarily used as an extender for PVA to reduce formulation cost. However antistats are needed with starch containing formulations to minimize static on warp yarns. Generally they are not needed with 100% PVA sizes. Antistats funciton as humectants, helping to retain moisture in the film while simulatneously plasticising the film. It includes urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol. Recommended level is 3-7%.
Defomers: Size solution can exhibit foam. For this we need defoamers in the levels of 0.25 to 1.00% based on the weight.
Binders- They are used for synthetic fibres- two major types are polyester or polyacrylic solution.
To avoid lappets warp density: For ring Spun 100% cotton - Spacing between adjecent ends should not be less than the diameter of the yarn. For Ring spun P/C blend spacing should not be less than 1.5 times the yarn diameter. For open end yarns, number of yarns per inch should be 10% less than the ring spun yarns of comparable count.
Viscosity: A properly sized warp will have completely encapsulating (360o) the yarn surface to hold down loose fibres. Internal penetration must be sufficient (15-25%) to anchor the size film to the surface of the yarn. Too low a size viscosity allows liquid to penetrate too deeply into the yarn. Too high a viscosity will not allow sufficient penetration to anchor the size. If ends are tightly packed in the size box, viscosity should be lowered to improve penetration.
Temperature of the size box is important for the right viscosity. High temperature may cause PVA to form skin- causing hard size formation when the slasher is stopped. Recommended temperature is 160-185 o F.
Drying can temperature should be set at the minimum to dry the yarn to hte desired moisture content of 5-8%.
Yarn stretch in cotton should be 1-6%, PC should be 1-1.5%, and Rayon/ Acrylic should be 3-5%.
Desizing agents: Can be water for PVA, NaoH for oils/waxes, HCL for starch, Enzyme for starch, Solvents for oils/waxes or peroxide for PVA.
For more details about textile sizing please click here.