There is frequently a need to describe the textile yarn concisely in the language which a laymen can understand. Also there is a need to write concisely the description of the textile yarn. ASTM has an elaborate system to describe spun, filament and a yarn made from a combination of these i.e. ply and cable yarn.
In yarns such as ply or cable yarn which are made from components, it is essential to describe the components and the resultant from those components. Thus in describing such yarns, there have to be two groups; one of them describes the components and the other describes the resultant yarn. Accordingly there are two ways to write a yarn description.
First method is called single to fold or ply notation. In this system, the single component of yarn is described first and only then the resultant yarn is descibed. This system is used in indirect numbering system.
Second method is called fold or ply to single notation. In this system, the whole structure is described first and then the components are described. This is frequently used by yarn buyers.
The full treatment of the topic is given here. Some general guidelines and examples are given in this article.
24 Ne Z 15tpi (Cotton, 1 1/6 inch, SLM, 4.3 Micronaire Reading)/5 S 9 tpi/3 Z 5tpi; R 1.4 cc
represents a yarn made from 24 Count twisted in z direction with 15 twists per inch which is then again twisted 5 fold in s directions with 9 tpi and three such yarns are again twisted in Z direction with 5 tip which give a resultant cotton count of 1.4.
The filament single yarn is described as
11 tex f40 s 2.5tpi( nylon 2.5 dtex)
For yarns where linear density gets increased on bulking or texturising, we describe it by symbol B.
70 den f34 t0(Nylon 2.97den); B 80 den
B 80 indicate that the denier of yarn is increased from 70 to 80 after bulking.
Multiple wound yarns are described as:
25 tex Z 15 tpi ( Cotton ) x 2 t0
Here t0 indicate zero twist and describes that 2 yarns of 25 tex cotton with 15 tpi in z direction are wound together.
We can also describe a yarn using x.
You can read more here.
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