Textile Testing is not something that is to be done on a finished product alone. There is a need to measure the effectiveness of each process so that necessary corrections can be done if needed. As an example, for a home linen fabric, the following testing procedures need to be carried out after every process.
Process of Manufacturing a Home-Linen Product
A typical home linen product is manufactured by the following process
Grey Fabric à Singeing and Desizing à Continuous Bleaching à Chainless Mercerisation à Continuous Dyeing range including Pad Dry and Pad Steam à Auto Jiggers with 20 cylinder drying range and open Stenterà Flat Bed Printingà Rotary Printing machine including loop stenter and polymeriser à stenterà Compressive Shrinkageà Calendering à Stitchingà Folding & Packing and Dispatch
The Following Testing procedures are needed at each stage of the process:
1. Grey inspection and checking
Every supply of grey cloth needs a thorough check for quality of the material. The following checks need to be made
• Checking of damage made during the transit
• Checking of quantity supplied
• Checking of count, reed and pick
• Checking of GSM of the cloth
• Checking of width of the grey
• Checking of knots in every meter of grey
• Checking of any deformity of construction of grey
• Checking of any unusual cuts in the cloth
2. Singeing and Scouring
After passing through the Singeing and Scouring process, the fabric undergoes the pilling test to determine the pilling and fuzzing characteristics of the fabric. Thereafter another test is conducted to determine the abrasion and pilling resistance of the fabric. If thesample fails this test as per specifications provided by the buyer then the grey cloth is sent back for Singeing.
De-sizing is the next step after which the TEGAWA test is conducted in a lab to check the presence of starch and other substances in the grey cloth and in the event the material fails this test then it is required to undergo the process of De-sizing.
The absorbency test, whiteness test and ph testing are carried out in the lab after completion of the processes of bleaching, washing and drying.
Subsequent to the Mercerizing process the fabric undergoes ph testing and TWEDDEL and Barium tests to check the concentration of caustic in the fabric. The operation is repeated in case the fabric fails the tests.
Post completion of the dyeing process, a number of tests are carried out to test the colour matching of the sample as per the buyer’s demand and colour fasteness of the cloth. The dyeing process has to be repeated in the event the fabric fails these tests.
After completion of printing on the fabric, the tests relating to colour matching and fastness are carried out once again.
Once the Stenting process is completed, lab tests are conducted for carrying out the shrinkage tests, tensile strengths and tear strengths of the fabric.
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