Friday, 23 May 2008

Effluent treatment in denim industry

Denim Effluent

-Dark Blue Indigo color
-High Dissolved Solids ( Decomposed products of hydro)
-High Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
-High pH
-Chlorides and Sulphates of Suspended matter

Characteristics of Effluent
Appearance: Dark Blue
pH: 9-10
Suspended Solids: 250ppm
Dissolved Solids: 3500-5000 ppm
Oil/Grease: Traces
BOD ( 5 days, 20 deg C): 160-350 ppm
COD: 570-1100 ppm
Alkalinity (pH): 400 ppm
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,(MO): 1700 ppm
Total Hardness: 220 ppm
Chlorides: 210-480 ppm
Sulphates ( SO4): 1200 ppm
Calcium: 15 ppm
Magnesium: 45 ppm
Ammonical Nitrogen: 2.5 ppm
Color (pt.Co): 250

Effluent is characterized by “high strength low volume”, as most of the most contaminated (“high strength”) effluent come from comparatively small quantity ( “low volume”) of wash waters used for rinse after yarn dyeing with indigo. Major contaminant is Indigo.

Permissible Limits for Cotton/ Synthetic Textile Industry (India) Effluent
pH= 5.5-9.0
Suspended Solids= 100 ppm
Oil and Grease= 10 ppm
BOD= 30 ppm
COD= 100 ppm
Hexavalent chromium: 0.1 ppm
Total Chromium= 2.0 ppm
Phenolic Compunds= 5 ppm
Sodium absorption ratio= 26
Sulphides= 2.0 ppm
color ( pt.Co.Scale) = 100
Bioassay test= 90% survival of fish after 9 hours in 100% effluent.

Effluent Treatment Scheme

1. Equalization
Equalization tank in two compartments. Retention time of at least 7-8 hours.

2. Flash Mixing
Equalisation Tank flash mixer ( to adjust pH) clarifloculator Unit ( Alum/Poly Aluminium Chloride) for coagulation/segmentation

3. flocculation
( it is a physico chemical process with 35-40% COD removal, 25-30% BOD and 70-80% color removal, also >95% color removal is possible if PAC and polymer dosage increased) overflow rate at CFU < 20 m^3/day
The sludge withdrawal should not be too less or too large ( can take place in lamella unit also )

4. Aeration
Effluent after CFU aeration process ( time > 18 hours) ( New recent aerators use injectors which produce very fine bubble resulting in a large air/water interface. Waste water is used as pressure water fro the operations of injection. Water +air stream are subjected at the bottom of the tower to prevent any possible sedimentation. Gas bubble rise to full height of the tower long resident time. Good utilization of oxygen upto 80% is possible.

5. Clarification
Effluent from aeration  clarifier ( resident time 3-4 hours)  activated sludge recalculated from clarifier to aeration tank sludge thickened  centrifugal decanter filtrate is then discharged to another tank.

Dissolving Oxygen
Clarified Effluent deficient in dissolved oxyen (DO)( for bioassay parameters) DO make uptank ( 2 hours resident time) – the output is expected to meet the criteria.

6. Ultrafilteration
Process for filtration of particles >5 n meters, from feed water made to flow at low pressure through membrane having pore size of 4-5 nm.
Useful for elimination of high molecular weight organic compounds. By using this ( the original indigo concentration in rinse water is 0.05%) fully usable 5% dispersion of indigo dye is obtained.
There are two types of membranes available. 1. Organic 2. Mineral – resistant to pH 0-14, resistant to mechanical and thermal conditions and are unaffected by solvents.

7. Incineration
Burning of waste
Major threat to possible health
Destruction of resources
Generate toxins

8. Sludge Disposal
 85% of the waste is biodegradable. Can be used for compost. Lime sludge has agricultural value as it is free from pathogenic microorganisms
Bugs convert dyes into colorless substances
Microorganisms ( Geotrichum Candidum  filament fungus isolated from soil) can decompose 18 different kinds of dyes in to colorless substances. Preferred pH for them is 4-7 at a temperature of 20-30 deg C. Can destroy dye in two days ( at a concentration of 12 g/lit). They can eat indigo also.

Process Control for Effluent
Usually 10% of the applied indigo is washed off in rinses. Indigo fixation of yarn could be improved by:
-Slightly lower pH- can reduce indigo consumption for a given visual depth of shade
-Use of pre reduced indigo and indigo dyeing under nitrogen blanket. Can cut hydro consumption
-Use of prereduced sulpher dye and maintain reduction potential with hydrol ( glucose + other oligomeric reducing agent) instead of sod. Sulphide.

Effluent volume can be reduced through water conservation
-Washing in counter current type
-Decrease size of wash tanks
-Use Na2CO3 (Sod. Bicarbonate) in first rinse tank
-Use Co2 for neutralization of alkali
-Use as many nips as possible during washing to squeeze out alkali to maximum ( squeezed liquor should not drop back into bath)
-Relying more on spray rather than immersion into the bath
-Create enough stir in wash tank for best washing efficiency.

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