Tuesday, 17 May 2011

Some Selected Notes on Textiles- Part 4

- Colorfastness to Light: In this the samples is exposed to a light source along with blue wool sample. The fading is observed and the rating is given.  The main difference between American and European Standards is that American standard is time bound. In European standards it is not a time bound test but fading bound test- means you have to keep on exposing the sample till the sample fades to that of blue scale. Factors affecting lightfastness are the type of dyes used, depth of shade, surface structure and finishing chemicals. 

- A cotton pigment printed fabric cannot be dry cleaned . In dry cleaning solvent called Perc- Perchloro Ethylene or Tetrachloroethylene. Pigments are very susceptible to dry cleaning- they will come out. Perc is the only solvent that do not blast. In exports they use MTO . The problem with perc is that it damages Ozone layer. Perc will take out the pigments from the print. However, if you dry clean with MTO, nothing will happen.  Perc does not smell as much as MTO does.  To test for dry cleaing, a bag is prepared where instead of steel balls, stainless steel discs are added. 

- To remove smell from pigment printed fabric, it has to be cured well. To do it, maintain a temperature of 150 deg and allow the fabric for 10 minutes. It will cause phosphoric acid to get liberated and pigment get fixed- for that Diammonium phosphate needs to be added – so fixation takes place under acidic condition.  

- When testing for shrinkage, the fabric is conditioned for 24 hours. Then it is subjected to washing process for 45 minutes to 1 hours. Then it is dried and reconditiond before remeasuring.

- When testing for shrinkage, soft water is used. Alum can be used for softening. Just move the alum on the upper surface for a few times. Now decant the upper portion and use the rest of the water for testing. One can also use wetting agent. 

- Drying can be line drying, wet drying, tumble drying or drip drying. 

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