Saturday, 30 May 2009
Manufacturing Process of Polyester
Manufacture of Polyester
These fibres are also known as Terylene, Terene, Dacron etc.
These fibres are synthetic textile fibres of high polymers which are obtained by esterification of dicarboxylic acids, with glycols or by ester exchange reactions between dicarboxylic acid esters and glycols.
Thus Terylene is made by polymerising using ester exchange reation between dimethyl teraphthlate and ethylene glycol.
The main raw materials required for the manufacture of Terylene polyester fibres are p-xylene ethylene glycol and methanol.
or Dacron ( Du Pont ) is produced by polycondensation reaction using Teraphthaleic Acid (TPA) and Ethylene Glocol
Manufacture of TPA
P-xylene-- Air, nitric Acid-->P-Toluic Acid--> Teraphthaleic Acid
Manufacture of DMT
p-xylene--Air 200 degC, co-toluate--> Toluic Acid--Ch3OH--> Monomethyl toluate--oxidation--> Monomethyl teraphthalate--CH3OH--> DMT
The use of Dimethyl Teraphthalate is preferred instead of Teraphthalic acid as the purity of the reacting chemicals is essential and it is easier to purify DMT than teraphthalic acid.
Manufacture of Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene--Oxidation with air-->Ethylene Oxide--Hydrolysis-->Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene--Hypochlorous Acid HOCl--> Ethylene Chlorohydrin--Alkaline Hydrolysis--> Ethylene Glycol
The polymer is made by heating teraphthalic acid with excess of ethylene glycol ( Both of high priority) in an atmosphere of nitrogen initially at atmospheric pressure. A catalyst like hydrochloric acid speeds up the reaction.
The resulting low molecular weight ethylene glycol teraphthalate is then heated at 280 deg C for 30 minutes at atmospheric pressure and then for 10 hours under vacuum. The excess of ethylene glycol is distilled off. the ester can polymerise now to form a product of high molecular weight. The resulting polymer is hard and almost white substance, melting at 256 deg C and has a molecular weight of 8000-10000. Filaments are prepared from this.
Spinning of Polyester Fibres
The polymer is extruded in the form of a ribbon. This ribbon is then converted into chips.
The wet chips are dried and fed through a hopper, ready for melting. This molten polymer is then extruded under high pressure through spinnerettes down to cylinder.
Each spinnerette contains 24 or so holes. A spinning finish is applied at this stage as a lubricant and an antistatic agent. The undrawn yarn is then wound onto cylinders.
This yarn goes to the drawing zone, where draw twist machines draw it to about four times their original length. This is hot drawn in contrast to cold drawing of nylon filaments.
For the production of staple fibres, the filaments are first brought together to from a thick tow. These are distributed in large cans. The tow is drawn to get correct strength. Then it is passed through a crimping machines, the crimps being stabilized by heating in ovens. It is then cut into specified lengths and baled ready for despatch.