Why Fiber Fineness is So Important
It has been known since long that fiber fineness plays an important role in determining the quality of resultant yarn and hence that of the resultant fabrics. In general fiber fineness is important due to the following factors:
1. It affects Stiffness of the Fabric
As the fiber fineness increases, resistance to bending decreases. It means the fabric made from yarn of finer fiber is less stiff in feel. It also drapes better.
2. It affects Torsional Rigidity of the Yarn
Torsional rigidity means ability to twist. As fiber fineness increases, torsional rigidity of the yarn reduces proportionally. Thus fibers can be twisted easily during spinning operation. Also there will be less snarling and kink formation in the yarn when the fine fibers are used.
3. Reflection of Light
Finer fibers also determine the luster of the fabric. It is so because they there are so many number of fibers per unit area that they produce a soft sheen. This is different from Hard glitter produced by the coarser fibers. Also the apparent depth of the shade will be lighter in case of fabrics made with finer fibers than in case of coarser fibers.
4. Absorption of Dyes
The amount of dye absorbed depends upon the amount of surface area accessible for dye out of a given volume of fibers. Thus finer fibers leads to quicker exhaustion of dyes than coarser fiberes.
5. Ease in Spinning Process
Finer fibers leads to more fiber cohesion because the number of surfaces are more so cohesion due to friction is higher. Also finer fibers lead to less amount of twist because of the same increased force of friction. Which means yarns can be spun finer with the same amount of twist as compared to coarser fibers. Which also means that the yarns will be softer.
6. Uniformity of Yarn and Hence Uniformity in the Fabric
Uniformity of yarn is directly proportional to the number of fibers in the cross fibers. Hence finer the fiber, the more uniform is the yarn. When the yarn in uniform lit leads to other desirable properties such as better tensile strength, extensibility and luster. It also leads to fewer breakages in spinning and weaving. In fact fiber fineness is one of the dominant factor in determining the limiting count to which a yarn can be spun.
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